- Applied plasma physics and technology
- Controlled thermonuclear fusion
- Plasma Diagnostics
- Tokamak Plasma Transport
- Compact Torus Injector
- C Tokamak Operation
Research and Academic Interests
Dr. Xiao's research interests are plasma physics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, and applied plasma physics and technology. In collaboration Professor A. Hirose, Dr. Xiao has carried out various experiments on the Saskatchewan TORus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak, the University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI) and the University of Saskatchewan Dense Plasma Focus (UofS-DPF) device .
1. Tokamak Plasma Transport
Dr. Xiao's work on H-mode (improved confinement) discharge studies has contributed to better understanding of the fluctuation induced transport in a tokamak. The ohmic H-modes in STOR-M are induced by a short current pulse, electrode biasing, limited biasing, and compact torus injection.
2. Compact Torus Injector
Compact torus injection is an emerging new technique to fuel a large tokamak. Dr. Xiao has been responsible for design and fabrication of the University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector. Tangential CT injection into STOR-M has triggered H-mode without disruption.
3. AC Tokamak Operation
Dr. Xiao has participated alternating current tokamak operation experiments on STOR-M. AC tokamak operation has advantages over conventional unipolar current operation because of effective Ohmic heating in a reactor.
4. Plasma Diagnostics
Dr. Xiao has expertise in plasma diagnostic instruments including Langmuir probes, magnetic probes, microwave and He-Ne laser interferometers, neutral beam, SXR detectors, spectroscopy, and pulsed power supply technology.
5. Applied Plasma Physics and Technology
Dr. Xiao is also working on plasma assisted syntheses of carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes and diamond films using hot filament and microwave CVD devices. The field electron emission properties of the films are also investigated. A dense plasma focus device has been built to investigate the feasibility of activation of short-lived isotopes used for medical imaging.
1. W. You, L. Hong, W.Z. Mao, W. Bai, C. Tu, B. Luo,Z. C. Li, Y. Adil, J. T. Hu, B. J. Xiao, Q. X. Yang, J. L. Xie, T. Lan, A. D. Liu, W. X. Ding, C. Xiao, W. D. Liu, Design of The Poloidal Field System for KTX, Plasma Sci. &Technol. (in print).
2. R. A. Behbahani, A. Hirose and C. Xiao, Formation of a dual-stage pinch-accelerator in a Z-pinch (plasma focus) device, Europhysics Lett., 121, 25001 (2018), doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/121/25001
3. C. Xiao, A. Rohollahi, T. Onchi, M. Dreval, S. Elgriw & A. Hirose, Momentum injection and repetitive CT operationExperiments, Rad. Effects and Defects in Solid, 172, 713-717 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1080/10420150.2017.1398244
4. S. Elgriw, M. Hubney, A. Hirose, C. Xiao, Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on edge plasma parameters in the STOR-M tokamak, Rad. Effects and Defects in Solid 173, 31-44 (2018), doi: 10.1080/10420150.2018.1442458
5. Debjyoti Basu, Masaru Nakajima, A.V. Melnikov, David McColl, Akbar Rohollahi, Sayf Elgriw, Chijin Xiao, Akira Hirose, Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) like oscillations and RMP effect in theSTOR-M tokamak (Letter), Nucl. Fusion, (2017) https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa9a4f
6. Sayf Elgriw, Joseph Adegun, Michael Patterson, Akbar Rohollahi, Debjyoti Basu, Masaru Nakajima, Kale Colville, Daniel Gomez, Chelsea Greenwald, Jiping Zhang, Akira Hirose, Chijin Xiao, Design of rotating resonant magnetic perturbation coil system in the STOR-M tokamak, Fusion Eng. Design, 123,148-152 (2017) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2017.03.161
7. Cui Tu, Hong Li, Adi Liu, Zichao Li, Yuan Zhang, Wei You, Mingsheng Tan, Bing Luo, Yolbarsop Adil, Jintong Hu, Yanqi Wu, Wentan Yan, Jinlin Xie, Tao Lan, Wenzhe Mao, Weixing Ding, Chijin Xiao, Ge Zhuang, and Wandong Liu, Determination of plasma displacement based on eddy current diagnostics for the Keda Torus eXperiment, Phys. of Plasmas, 24, 102518 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4996546
8. Cui Tu, Adi Liu, Zichao Li, Mingsheng Tan, Bing Luo, Wei You, Chenguang Li, Wei Bai, Chenshuo Fu, Fangcheng Huang, Bingjia Xiao, Biao Shen, Tonghui Shi, Dalong Chen, Wenzhe Mao, Hong Li, Jinglin Xie, Tao Lan, Weixing Ding, Chijin Xiao and Wandong Liu, Electromagnetic diagnostic system for the Keda Torus eXperiment, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 093513 (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5003039
9. Wandong Liu, Tao Lan, Wenzhe Mao, Hong Li, Jinlin Xie, Ahdi Liu, Shude Wan, Hai Wang, Jian Zheng, Xiaohui Wen, Haiyang Zhou,Wei You, Chenguang Li , Wei Bai, Cui Tu, Mingsheng Tan, Bing Luo, Chenshuo Fu, Fangcheng Huang, Hangqi Xu, Tijian Deng,Junfeng Zhu, Sen Zhang, Yolbarsop Adil, Jintong Hu, Bingjia Xiao,Zhengping Luo, Huazhong Wang, Biao Shen, Peng Fu, Lei Yang,Yuntao Song, Qingxi Yang, Jinxing Zheng, Hao Xu, Ping Zhang, Chijin Xiao and Weixing Ding, Overview of Keda Torus eXperiment initial Results, Nucl. Fusion 57, 116038 (2017), https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa7f21
10. A. Rohollahi, S. Elgriw, D. Basu, S. Wolfe, A. Hirose and C. Xiao, Modification of toroidal flow velocity through momentum injection by compact torus injection into the STOR-M tokamak, Nucl. Fusion 57, 056023(2017), https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa64fb
11. A. Rohollahi, S. Khatir, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Interaction between the compact tori and coated stainless steel samples, Rad. Effects and Defects in Solids 172, 119 ( 2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10420150.2017.1287185
12. Y. L. Li, G. S. Xu, C. Xiao, H. Q. Wang, N. Yan, B. N. Wan, L. Chen, Y. L. Liu, H. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Wang, G. H. Hu, R. Chen, J. C. Xu, Y. Ye, and J. Li, Retarding field analyzer for the EAST plasma boundary, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 123503 (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4971317
13. Zichao Li, Hong Li, Cui Tu, Jintong Hu, Wei You, Bing Luo, Mingsheng Tan, Yolbarsop Adil, Yanqi Wu, Biao Shen, Bingjia Xiao, Ping Zhang, Wenzhe Mao, Hai Wang, Xiaohui Wen, Haiyang Zhou, Jinlin Xie, Tao Lan, Adi Liu, Weixing Ding, Chijin Xiao, and Wandong Liu, The eddy current probe array for Keda Torus eXperiment, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 113503 (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4966988
14. Hai Liu, Zhipeng Chen, Ge Zhuang, Zhongyong Chen, and Chijin Xiao, A new application of retarding field analyzer for the electron and ion temperature measurement on the J-TEXT tokamak, �Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 11D444 (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4964441
15. W. You, H. Li, M.S. Tan, M.J. Lu, Y.Q. Wu, W.Z. Mao, W. Bai, C. Tu, B. Luo,� Z.C. Liu, Y. Adil,� Y.T. Hu, Y.T. Song, Q.X. Yang, P. Zhang, J.L. Xie, T. Lan, A. Liu, W.X. Ding, C.J. Xiao, W.D. Liu, Design of a stabilizing shell for KTX, Fusion Eng. Design, 108, 28 (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2016.04.019
16. H. Liu, Z.P. Chen, G. Zhuang, Y. Sun, L.Z. Zhu, C.J. Xiao, J. Chen, Investigation of the Ion Energy Transport in the Scrape-Off Layer on the J-TEXT Tokamak Using a Retarding Field Analyzer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 18, 601 (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1009-0630/18/6/04
17. S. Elgriw, Y. Liu, A. Hirose, C. Xiao, Modification of plasma rotation with resonant magnetic perturbations in the STOR-M tokamak, Plasma Phys. and Control. Fusion 58, 045002 (2016), doi:10.1088/0741-3335/58/4/045002
18. A. Rohollahi, S. Elgriw, D. Basu, S. Wolfe, A. Hirose and C. Xiao, Modification of toroidal flow velocity through momentum Injection by compact torus injection into the STOR-M tokamak, Nucl. Fusion, 57, 056023 (2017), https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa64fb
19. T. Onchi, D. McColl, M. Dreval, A. Rohollahi, S. Wolfe, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Development towards a Repetitive Compact Torus Injector, IEEE Transactions Plasma Science 44, 195 (2016).
20. R. A. Behbahani, A. Hirose and C. Xiao, Plasma heating and emission of runaway charged particles in a plasma focus device, Europhysics Lett. 113, 55001 (2016), doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/113/55001
21. W. Bai, T.Lan, L. Yang, C. Xiao, W. Mao, W.You, C. Li, C. Tu, M. Tan, B. Luo, C. Fu, F. Huang, H. Xu,T. Deng, J. Zhu, P. Fu, X. Wen, H. Zhou, H. Wang, S. Wan, A. Liu, J. Xie, H. Li, W. Ding, W. Liu, Coupling circuit model and discharge waveform prediction for Keda Torus eXperiment , FUSION ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, 100, 495-500 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2015.07.025
22. S. Khatir, A. Hirose, C. Xiao, Characterization of physical and biomedical properties of nitrogenated diamond-like carbon films coated on polytetrafluoroethylene substrates ， DIAMOND AND RELATED MATERIALS, 58, 205-213(2015). doi:10.1016/j.diamond.2015.08.003.
23. O. Mitarai, C. Xiao, D. McColl, M. Dreval, A. Hirose and M. Peng, Plasma current start-up by the outer ohmic heating coils in the Saskatchewan TORus Modified (STOR-M) iron core tokamak, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 86, 33508-33508 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4915316.
24. Y. L. Li, G. S. Xu, H. Q. Wang, C. Xiao, B. N. Wan, Z. Gao, R. Chen, L. Wang, K. F. Gan, J. H. Yang, X. J. Zhang, S. C. Liu, M. H. Li, S. Ding, N. Yan, W. Zhang, G.H. Hu, Y.L. Liu, L. M. Shao, J. Li, L. Chen, N. Zhao, J. C. Xu, Q.Q. Yang, H. Lan,Y. Ye, Fast electron flux driven by lower hybrid wave in the scrape-off layer, Phys. of Plasmas, 22, 022510 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4908542.
25. R. A. Behbahani and C. Xiao, Common features of particle beams and x-rays generated in a low energy dens plasma focus device (Letter), Phys. of Plasmas, 22, 020708 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4913982.
26. T. Onchi, D. McColl, M. Dreval, S. Wolfe, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Design and implementation of fast charging circuit for repetitive compact torus injector, FUSION ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, 89, 2559-2565 (2015), doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2014.06.019
27. O. Mitarai, Y. Ding, M. Hubeny, Y. Lu, T. Onchi, D. McColl, C. Xiao and A. Hirose, 2014, Plasma current sustainment after iron core saturation in the STOR-M tokamak, Fusion Engineering and Design, 89, 2467-2471 (2014), doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2014.02.017
28. Wandong Liu, Wenzhe Mao, Hong Li, Jinlin Xie, Tao Lan, Ahdi Liu, Shude Wan, Hai Wang, Jian Zheng, Xiaohui Wen, Haiyang Zhou, Wei You, Chenguang Li, Wei Bai, Cui Tu, Mingsheng Tan, Bing Luo, Chenshuo Fu, Fangcheng Huang, Bingjia Xiao, Zhengping Luo, Biao Shen, Peng Fu, Lei Yang, Yuntao Song, Qingxi Yang, Jinxing Zheng, Hao Xu, Ping Zhang, Chijin Xiao and Weixing Ding, Progress of the Keda Torus eXperiment Project in China: design and mission, Plasma Phys. and Control. Fusion, 56 094009 (2014) (13pp), doi:10.1088/0741-3335/56/9/094009
29. S. Khatir, A. Hirose, C. Xiao, Coating diamond-like carbon films on polymer substrates by inductively coupled plasma assisted sputtering, Surface & Coatings Technology, 253, 96-99 (2014) (4pp), doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.05.020
30. K. Kreuger, Z.H. Huang, M. Jiang, G.S. Xu, W. Zhang, H.Q. Wang, J. Cheng, W.Y. Hong, L.W. Yan and C. Xiao, Simultaneous ion temperature and flow measurements using a retarding field analyzer in the HL-2A tokamak, RADIATION EFFECTS AND DEFECTS IN SOLIDS:Inc. Plasma Sci. and Plasma Technol. 168, 776-788 (2013), DOI:10.1080/10420150.2013.831855
31. M. Dreval, M. Hubeny, Y. Ding, T. Onchi, Y. Liu, K. Hthu, S. Gamudi, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, Plasma confinement modification and convective transport suppression in the scrape-off layer using additional gas puffing in the STOR-M tokamak, Plasma Phys. and Control. Fusion, 55, 035004 (2013), doi:10.1088/0741-3335/55/3/035004
32. T. Onchi, Y. Liu, M. Dreval, D. McColl, S. Elgriw, D. Liu, T. Asai, C. Xiao and A. Hirose, Effects of compact torus injection on toroidal flow in the STOR-M tokamak, Plasma Phys. and Control. Fusion, 55, 035003 (2013) (10pp), doi:10.1088/0741-3335/55/3/035003
33. M. Jiang, C. Xiao, G. S. Xu, B. N. Wan, H. Q. Wang, L. Features of the repetition frequency of edge localized modes in EAST, Radiation effects and Defects in Solids: Incorporating Plasma Sci. and Plasma Technol./ 167, 743-751 (2012).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10420150.2012.690762.
34. M. Jiang, G.S. Xu,C. Xiao, H.Y. Guo, B. N. Wan, H. Q. Wang, L. Wang, K. F. Gan, D. S. Wang, N. Yan, V. Naulin P.Liu, S. Y. Ding, W. Zhang and S. C. Liu, 2012, Characteristics edge localized modes in the experimental advanced superconduting tokamak EAST, Plasma Phys. and Controlled Fusion,54, 095003 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/54/9/095003 .
35. S. Elgriw, D. Liu, T. Asai, A. Hirose, C. Xiao, Control of magnetic islands in the STOR-M tokamak using resonant helical fields, Nucl. Fusion, 51, 113008 (2011), doi:10.1088/0029-5515/51/11/113008
36. G.S.Xu, C.Xiao and 15 others. A Dip Structure in the Intrinsic Toroidal Rotation Near the Edge of the Ohmic Plasmas in EAST, Plasma Sci. &Technol.13, 397-404 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1009-0630/13/4/03
37. M. Dreval, C.Xiao, A. Hirose, 2011, Numerical simulations of the soft x-ray signals for determination of radial locations of the magnetic islands in the STOR-M tokamak, Radiation effects and Defects in Solids: Incorporating Plasma Sci. and Plasma Technol. 166, 765-773 (2011), http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3593110
38. M. Dreval, C.Xiao, S. Elgriw, D. Trembach, S. Wolfe, and A. Hirose, Determination of radial location of rotating magnetic islands by use of poloidal soft x-ray detector arrays in the STOR-M tokamak, Review of Scientific Instruments,82 ,053503 (2011), DOI:10.1080/10420150.2011.615315
39. H. Li, C. Xiao, E. Zhang, A.K. Singh and A. Hirose, Measurement of neutral gas temperature in inductively coupled plasmas, Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids: Incorporating Plasma Science and Plasma Technology 166 399-407 ( 2011), DOI:10.1080/10420150.2011.566876
40. W. Zhang, J. F. Chang, B. N. Wan, G. S. Xu, C. Xiao, B. Li, C. S. Xu, N. Yan, L. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. Jiang, and P. Liu, Fast reciprocating probe system on the EAST superconducting tokamak, Review of Scientific Instruments 81 113501 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3499237
41. Y.S. Li, Y. Tang, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, Growth and adhesion failure of diamond thin films deposited on stainless steel with ultra-thin dual metal interlayers, Appl. Surface Sci. 256, doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.06.022
42. Y.S. Li, Y.Tang, Q. Yang, J. Maley, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, Ultrathin W-Al Dual Interlayer Approach to Depositing Smooth and Adherent Nanocrystalline Diamond Films on Stainless Steel,ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES 2, 335-338 (2010).
43. A. Pant, A. Hirose, and C. Xiao, Repetitive operation of the University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector, RADIATION EFFECTS AND DEFECTS IN SOLIDS:Inc. Plasma Sci. and Plasma Technol. 165, 96-105 (2010), DOI:10.1080/10420150903498669
44. G.S. Germaine, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, Plasma flow measurements in improved modes on STOR-M and CASTOR tokamaks, RADIATION EFFECTS AND DEFECTS IN SOLIDS:Inc. Plasma Sci. and Plasma Technol. �165, 138-164 (2010), DOI:10.1080/10420150903516650
45. Y.S. Li, Y. Tang, W. Chen, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Plasma enhanced diamond deposition on steel and Si substrates, ACTA METALLURGICA SINICA-ENGLISH LETTERS, 22, 321-329 (2009)
46. M. Dreval, D. Rohraff, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, Retarding field energy analyzer for the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified plasma boundary, Review of Scientific Instruments 80, 103505 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3247902
47. Y.S. Li, Y. Tang, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Al-enhanced low temperature deposition of diamond thin films on hetero-substrate, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 116, 649-653 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.matchemphys.2009.05.019
48. D. Trembach, C. Xiao, M. Dreval, A. Hirose, Diamagnetic measurements in the STOR-M tokamak by a flux loop system exterior to the vacuum vessel, Review of Scientific Instruments 80, 053502 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3126526
49. Y.S. Li, Y. Tang, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Diamond deposition on steel substrates with an Al interlayer, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS 27, 417-420 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2008.09.015
50. M. Dreval, C. Xiao, D. Trembach, A. Hirose, S. Elgriw, A. Pant, D. Rohraff, T. Niu, Simultaneous evolution of plasma rotation, radial electric field, MHD activity and plasma confinement in STOR-M tokamak, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 50, 095914 (2008).
51. C. Xiao, T. Niu, J.E. Morelli, C. Paz-Soldan, M. Dreval, Design and Initial Operation of Multichord Soft X-Ra Detection Arrays on the STOR-M Tokamak, Review of Scientific Instruments 79, 10E926 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2953493
52. M. Dreval, C. Xiao, D. Trembach, A. Hirose, Heavy-ion Beam Probe Diagnostics for the STOR-M Tokamak: Numerical Simulations and Design Features (Abstract, PDF file), Plasma Devices and Operations 16, 127-134 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10519990802062609
53. X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Filed Electron Emission Charachteristics of Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond Films with Controlled sp(2) Phase Concentration, Thin Solid Films 516, 4217-4221 (2008).
54. A. Hirose, M. Dreval, S. Elgriw, O. Mitarai, A. Pant, M. Peng, D. Rohraff, A.K. Singh, D. Trembach, C. Xiao, "Recent Results from the STOR-M Tokamak" in Plasma and Fusion Science, 17th IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices, Lisbon, Potugal, 22-24 October 2007, Edited by C. Varandas and C. Silva, AIP Conference Proceedings Series 996, American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, 2008, Pp. 14-23.
55. D. Liu, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Performance of the University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector with Curved Acceleration Electrodes, Review of Scientific Instruments 79, 013502-1-6 (2008)
56. Y.S. Li, Q. Yang,C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Effect of various alloying elements on diamond growth on Fe-Cr steels, Thin Slolid Films 516, 3089-3093 (2008).
57. X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, T. Tiedje, Synthesis and field electron emission characteristics of diamond multilayer films grown by graphite etching, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40, 4010-4014 (2007).
58. Y.S. Li, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Q. Yang, S. Shimada, Diamond growth on a Si substrate with ceramic interlayers, Journal American Ceramic Society 90, 1427-1433 (2007).
59. Q. Yang, S.N. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Transformation of carbon nanotubes to diamond in microwave hydrogen plasma, Materials Letters 61,2208-2211 (2007).
60. X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Effects of hydrogen flow rate on the growth and field electron emission characteristics of diamond films synthesized through graphite etching, Diamond and Related Materials 16, 1623-1627 (2007).
61. Q.Q. Yang, S.N. Yang, C.J. Xiao, A. Hirose, Effects of nichel thin films on the nucleation and growth of diamond on silicon, Materials Research Innovations 10, 115 (2006).
62. X. Lu, Q. Yang, W. Chen, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Field electron emission characteristics of diamond films with different grain morphologies, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 24, 2575-2580 (2006).
63. A. Singh, J. Morelli, C. Xiao, O. Mitarai, A. Hirose, Investigation of Plasma Equilibrium in the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) during Alternating Current Operation, Contribution to Plasma Physics 40, 773-789 (2006).
64. C. Xiao, S.J. Livingstone, A.K. Singh, D. Raju, G.S. Germaine, D. Liu, C. Boucher, A. Hirose, Short Wavelength Density and Low Frequency MHD Fluctuation Measurements in the STOR-M Tokamak, IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2006, Paper No. EX/P4-31 .
65. W.F. Chen, X.F. Lu, Q.Q. Yang, C.J. Xiao, R. Sammynaiken, J. Manly, A. Hirose, Effects of Gas Flow Rate on Diamond Deposition in a MicroWave Plasma Reactor, Thin Slolid Films 515, 1970-1975 (2006).
66. X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Nonlinear Fowler-Nordheim plots of the field electron emission from graphitic nanocones: influence of nonuniform field enhancement factors
, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics39, 3375-3379 (2006).
72. C.J. Xiao, D. Liu, S. Livingstone, A.K. Singh, E. Zhang, A. Hirose, Tangential and Vertical Compact Torus Injection Experiments on the STOR-M Tokamak, Plasma Science and Technology 7, 2701-2704 (2005).
77. Q. Yang, W. Chen, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, R. Sammynaiken, Simultaneous Growth of Well-aligned Diamond and Graphitic Carbon Nanostructures through Graphite Etching, Diamond and Related Materials 14, 1683-1687 (2005).
81. P. Franz , L. Marrelli, P. Piovesan, B.E. Chapman, P. Martin, I. Predebon, G. Spizzo, R.B. White, C. Xiao, Observations of Multiple Magnetic Islands in the Core of a Reversed Field Pinch, Physical Review Letters 92, 125001-4 (2004).
83. J.S. Sarff, A.F. Almagri, J.K. Anderson, T.M. Biewer, A.P. Blair, M. Cengher, B.E. Chapman, P.K. Chattopadhyay, D. Craig, D.J. Den Hartog, F. Ebrahimi, G. Fiksel, C.B. Forest, J.A. Goetz, D. Holly, B. Hudson, T.W. Lovell, K.J. McCollam, P.D. Nonn, R. O�Connell, S.P. Oliva, S.C. Prager, J.C. Reardon, M.A. Thomas, M.D. Wyman, D.L. Brower, W.X. Ding, S.D. Terry, M.D. Carter, V.I. Davydenko, A.A. Ivanov, R.W. Harvey, R.I. Pinsker, C. Xiao, Tokamak-like confinement at a high beta and low toroidal field in the MST reversed field pinch, Nucl. Fusion 43, 1684�1692 (2003).
84. P. Martin, L. Marrelli, G. Spizzo, P. Franz, P. Piovesan, I. Predebon, T. Bolzonella, S. Cappello, A. Cravotta, D.F. Escande, L. Frassinetti, S. Ortolani, R. Paccagnella, D. Terranova, the RFX team, B.E. Chapman, D. Craig, S.C. Prager, J.S. Sarff, the MST team, P. Brunsell, J.-A. Malmberg, J. Drake, the EXTRAP T2R team, Y. Yagi, H. Koguchi, Y. Hirano, the TPE-RX team, R.B. White, C. Sovinec, C. Xiao, R.A. Nebel and D.D. Schnack, Overview of quasi-single helicity experiments in reversed field pinches, Nucl. Fusion 43, 1855�1862 (2003)
85. C. Xiao, P. Franz, B.E. Chapman, D. Craig, W.X. Ding, G. Gadani, L. Marrelli, P. Martin, R. Pasqualotto, G. Spizzo, J.S. Sarff, S.D. Terry, Soft-x-ray Emission, Plasma Equilibrium, and Fluctuation Studies on MST, 2003, Review of Scientific Instruments, 74, 2157-2160 (2003).
86. P. Franz, G. Gadani, R. Pasqualotto, L. Marrelli, P. Martin, G. Spizzo, P. Brunsell, B. Chapman, F. Paganucci, P. Rossetti, C. Xiao, Compact soft x-ray multichord camera: design and initial operation, 2003, Review of Scientific Instruments, 74, 152-2156 (2003).
88. A.V. Sokolov, E.Z. Kurmaev, S. Leitch, A. Moewes, J. Kortus, L.D. Finkelstein, N.A. Skorikov, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Band Dispersion of MgB2 , Graphite and diamond from resonant inelastic scattering, 2003, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter, 15, 2081-2089 (2003).
91. B.H. Oh, B.H. Choi, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, 1998. Characteristics of the electron-energy distribution functions in a weakly magnetized hollow cathode plasma source, J. of Accelerator and Plasma Res., 3, 77-86.
95. R. Raman, F. Martin, E. Haddad, M. St-Onge, G. Abel, C. C�t�, N. Richard, N. Blanchard, H. Mai, B. Quirion, J.-L. Lachambre, J.-L. Gauvreau, G. Pacher, R. D�coste, P. Gierszewski, D. Hwang, A. Hirose, S. Savoie, B.-J. Leblanc, H. McLean, C. Xiao, B. Stansfield, A. C�t�, D. Michaud, M. Chartr�, 1997. Experimental Demonstration of Tokamak Fuelling by Compact Toroid Injection., Nuclear Fusion, 37, 967-972.
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