About the Plasma Physics Laboratory


The Plasma Physics Laboratory at the University of Saskatchewan was established in 1958 by Dr. H. M. Skarsgard (1929 - 2018) and early experimental work was centred around the study of electron acceleration in the Plasma Betatron. These early experiments led to the study of plasma turbulence and some of the earliest work on turbulent heating in toroidal geometry. Successful experiments in toroidal turbulent heating, which resulted in keV electron temperature, led to the construction of STOR-1M, Canada 's first tokamak (1983) and was soon followed by a larger tokamak, STOR-M (1987) which is still active. Both machines have been used to carry out unique experiments including turbulent heating, ac (alternating current) tokamak operation, plasma biasing, anomalous transport, and Compact Torus (CT) injection. PPL is a member of IAEA CRP (Collaborative Research Projects) of small tokamaks.

In 2000, research on plasma based material synthesis was initiated. The Plasma Physics Laboratory is becoming a centre of carbon based materials research and its research scope is expanding rapidly with the newest addition of ion implantation program. High quality diamond grains, carbon nanotubes (CNT), and carbon nanocones, all having potentials of industrial applications, have been synthesized. Research of coating medical grade polymers with DLC (diamond-like carbon) is underway to improve haemocompatibility of artificial blood vessels in cardiovascular applications.

The Laboratory offers training of graduate students in broad programs of plasma science and plasma assisted material science. Five comprehensive graduate level courses are available and experimental programs range from tokamak physics to plasma assisted material synthesis, both in experiments and in theory.

The research contributions made by the faculty members are recognized internationally.The Laboratory is well funded by NSERC, CRC, the province of Sasktchewan, and the University.

What is Plasma?

The state of matter changes from solid to liquid and then to gas as the temperature is raised. Further increase in temperature breaks Coulomb bondage between electron and nucleus and matter becomes ionized at temperature higher than about 10,000 K. (Even a candle flame at 1500 K is in the state of weakly ionized plasma as demonstrated by Faraday.) Fluorescent lamps, lightning, aurora, and electrostatic arcs are a few examples of plasma discharges.

The sun and all stars are in plasma state. The high temperature in the sun is maintained by heat released in nuclear fusion reactions whereby hydrogen ions are fused to form heavier nuclei. (Uncontrolled demonstration of fusion reaction was achieved in the form of hydrogen bomb.) Active research is being carried out worldwide in order to realize fusion reactors which would provide clean, abundant energy source for future generations.

Plasma technology is indispensable in modern manufacturing and electronics industries. Tiny computer chips smaller than 1 micron size can be fabricated on silicon substrate only in plasma reactors through the process of dry etching. Novel materials, such as carbon nantotubes and diamond semiconductors, can be synthesized in plasma reactors in which chemical reactions can be accelerated by non-thermal electrons. Flat plasma display (plasma TV) and plasma headlamp have reached the stage of commercial production after decades of basic research.

Magnetic Fusion

STOR-M Tokamak (Hirose, Xiao, Singh)

The STOR-M tokamak is a research tokamak designed and built in the Laboratory for studies on plasma heating, anomalous transport, and developing novel tokamak operation modes and advanced diagnostics. Since the closure of Tokamak de Varennes in 1997, STOR-M is the only device in Canada devoted to magnetic fusion. Efforts are being made to revitalize fusion research in Canada which is the only G8 country not participating in the ITER program.

Major Radius 46 cm
Minor Radius 12.5 cm
Toroidal Magnetic Field 0.5 ~ 1 T
Plasma Current 30 ~ 60 kA
Electron Density 1 ~ 3 x 10^13/cm^3
Electron Temperature 2 ~ 300 eV
Confinement Time 2 ~ 5 msec

STOR-M is equipped with a sophisticated feedback control system for horizontal and vertical plasma positions, a driver for fast rising Ohmic Heating current, a circuit system for alternating current (ac) operation, Compact Torus Injector, and various diagnostic instruments. In the following, major experiments carried out with STOR-M and their impacts on tokamak research are described.

Alternating Current (ac) Tokamak Operation

Stable alternating current operation of a tokamak was first demonstrated in STOR-1M (1987) and subsequently reproduced in STOR-M and the Joint European Torus (JET) at 2 MA currents. Genuine steady state tokamak fusion reactors require non-Ohmic current drive. For example, injection of microwaves at the lower-hybrid resonance frequency is a well developed technology for non-inductive current drive. However, the power requirement for driving multi mega ampere tokamak currents is a significant fraction of reactor output even if a large fraction of the toroidal current is self-generated as the bootstrap current. Inductive (Ohmic) current drive is highly efficient and not subject to plasma density limitation as rf wave current drive. The principal objective of the ac operation experiments carried out on STOR-1M and STOR-M tokamaks is to demonstrate the feasibility of quasi steady state (rather than genuinely steady state) tokamak reactors. Recently, 1.5-cycle ac operation has been achieved in STOR-M without the feared accumulation of impurities during the current reversal phases.

Compact Torus Injection

Compact torus (CT) injection is an emerging new technology to fuel the core of tokamak fusion reactors in the future. Fueling technologies currently available, such as cryogenic deuterium-tritium pellet injection, may not be adequate to fuel directly the core of reactors where most fusion reactions take place. The compact torus is a fully ionized, self-confined high density plasmoid and if accelerated to a velocity larger than the Alfven velocity, it will penetrate deep into a tokamak discharge. The first non-disruptive CT injection has been demonstrated on Tokamak de Varennes using the Compact Toroid Fueller designed and fabricated in the Laboratory under a contract with the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project. Subsequently, a smaller Compact Torus Injector was built with the funds provided by NSERC through the Strategic Program. It was installed on STOR-M in 1995. In addition to expected plasma fueling (increase in the plasma density), CT injection has been found to induce a phenomenon similar to the Ohmic H-mode (high confinement mode) discovered earlier on STOR-1M and STOR-M tokamaks. Similar improved confinement after CT injection has been observed on TdeV as well.

Ohmic H-Modes

H-mode is an improved confinement phase in tokamaks over nominal (L-mode) confinement. In large tokamaks with powerful supplementary heating, transition to H-mode occurs when the heating power exceeds a threshold. In STOR-1M and STOR-M tokamaks, a unique heating method, turbulent heating, developed earlier in the Laboratory for non-tokamak toroidal devices, has been applied. After the current pulse, the plasma confinement time is tripled. This observation of Ohmic H-mode was made first on STOR-1M and later on STOR-M and other tokamaks with various means including fast gas puffing and electrode biasing. The significance of the observation is in demonstrating that there is room for improved confinement even in Ohmic discharges. Concurrent with improved confinement, significant reduction of the fluctuations of plasma density and of magnetic fluctuations at the plasma edge have been observed. The plasma potential is lowered and an edge transport barrier develops. At present, the causality problem remains unresolved, that is, it is not clear plasma auto-biasing is a cause or result of improved confinement

Advanced Plasma Diagnostics

Microwave reflectometry has been developed not only for measuring the amplitude of plasma density fluctuations but also for correlation length measurements which is an important quantity in estimating the anomalous plasma diffusivity. In the core region of STOR-M, plasma density fluctuation measurement based on scattering of 2 mm microwave is being conducted with emphasis on short wavelength modes driven by the electron temperature gradient (ETG mode). X-ray tomography for fast magnetic reconnection phenomena during CT injection is planned. It is also planned to develop novel diagnostics based on far infrared lasers for the ITER through international collaboration.

Materials Processing

Plasma Assisted Materials Synthesis and Processing (Bradley, Hirose, Xiao, Yang)

Research on plasma assisted material synthesis and processing was initiated in the Laboratory four years ago. Carbon nanostructures (diamond films, carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon nanocones) have been successfully synthesized with a newly developed ion sputtering technology which allows diamond synthesis at unusually low temperatures (as low as 250 C). Several methods have been developed for mass production of carbon nanotubes and the Laboratory is collaborating with a group in Chemical Engineering on industrial applications of CNT. In biomedical applications of diamond and related materials, DLC (diamond-like-carbon) has been coated on polymers (PTFE) to improve its haemocompatibility. (PTFE tubes used in cardiovascular applications tend to develop blood clotting if the diameter is less than 6 mm.) Haemocompatibility tests of PTFE with and without DLS coating have been conducted with human blood. Preliminary results are encouraging: DLC coating reduces platelet activation and adhesion. Field electron emission from the synthesized carbon nanostructures has also been observed. One of the long term objectives of the research is to develop a synthesis technology for diamond semiconductors. Superiority of diamond based semiconductors over silicon based semiconductors is well known but development of fabrication technology has been slow. Another area of high priority is research on super hard composite materials for applications in mechanical and nuclear engineering.

Ion Implantation (Bradley)

Plasma ion implantation is an innovative material modification technique whereby controlled quantities of desired impurities are implanted into target materials by applying high-voltage negative pulses to a target immersed in a plasma (a gas of ions and electrons) composed of the ions to be implanted. Material properties are highly dependent on the composition and distribution of impurities within the material; because it allows precisely controlled insertion of impurities at controlled depths, plasma ion implantation is one of the most versatile techniques available for the modification of material properties. A proof-of-concept high-voltage pulser has been designed and built, and is now being tested in the ICP plasma chamber recently acquired by the Laboratory. Preliminary results are encouraging. This high-voltage pulser will be used for high-dose ion implantation of a variety of sample materials, such as conventional and porous silicon, SiO2, and diamond and DLC films.

Processing Facilities

Plasma Reactors

Microwave Plasma CVD Reactor (CFI)
Inductively Coupled Plasma CVD Reactor (CFI)
Hot Filament Plasma CVD Reactor
Arc Discharge Plasma CVD Reactor
Ion Implantation ICP Reactor (CFI. Bradley)

Surface Analyses

SEM (Geological Science)
TEM (Mechanical Engineering)
Nano-indentometer (Mechanical Engineering)
Raman, AFM, Fluorescence spectroscopy, XRD at SSSC
XAS at CLS and other synchrotron facilities


Some of the progress made in the group is highlighted

Sample Photographs


Electric field aligned growth of carbon nanotubes



Carbon nanotubes have been observed to grow along the direction of local electric field which is not normal to the substrate at the edge. SEM images showing CNTs at different locations on a negatively biased substrate: (a)  top-left corner,  (b) top edge,  (c) top-right corner,   (d) left edge, (e) center, (f) right edge, (g) bottom-left corner, (h) bottom edge,  (i) bottom-right corner.


Nanocones of diamond and related materials

SEM images of nanocone thin films grown under different deposition conditions (a) daimaond, (b) graphite, (c) diamond and graphite composite). Each cone has a nanosize sharp tip and micron size root. Field electron emission (FEE) properties have been investigated.



Diamond coating on steel alloys

Surface images of diamond films grown for 4 h on Fe-15Cr (a) and Fe-15Cr-5Al (b). Figure (c) shows the morphologies of diamond films grown on Fe-15Cr-5Al for 12 h at different magnifications. Raman spectra corresponding to the above three surfaces are presented in (d).

Synthesis of  Tungsten Nanorods



SEM of morphology change with the tungsten hot filament temperatures. (a) at 1600 C; (b) at 1940 C; (c) at 2000 C; (d) at 2160 C.



Light emission from porous (nano-void) silicon




Electroluminescence Spectra of Bandstructure-Engineered Silicon


Magnetic Fusion (Hirose, Smolyakov)

Recent theoretical contributions to magnetic fusion research include: (a) linear stability analyses of the kinetic ballooning mode, electromagnetic drift type mode and finite beta effects on those modes, (b) nonlinear saturation of drift type modes, (c) strong turbulence theory, and (d) Hall MHD. A common objective of these studies is to provide a better understanding of transport in tokamaks which may ultimately lead to control of plasma instabilities and realization of more compact tokamak reactors.

Theory of inductively coupled plasmas: (Smolyakov)

Inductively coupled discharges are widely used plasma sources for material processing reactors, electrode-less RF (radio-frequency) lighting devices, and plasma spectrometers. We study nonlinear and anomalous skin effects in such discharges with a goal of developing new, more efficient plasma sources.

Magnetohydrodynamics of plasmas (Smolyakov)

Also with mass flow with applications to astrophysical plasmas. This research project aims to clarify the mechanism of the angular momentum transport due to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in high beta plasmas such as plasmas in accretion disks around the black holes as well as to investigate whether similar instabilities may be operative in colder protostellar disks and winds. We also study the effects of convective instabilities that may exist in a stratified plasma that is too weakly ionized for magnetorotational instabilities.

Hall MHD: (Hirose, Ito)

Hall MHD approximation often provides convenient approximation for more accurate two-fluid description of high temperature plasmas. Its validity should be checked in terms of a kinetic theory. For low frequency, long wavelength MHD waves, the dispersion relation based on isotropic Hall MHD approximation has been compared with a fully kinetic dispersion relation. Significant discrepancy arises because of the isotropic plasma compressibility assumed in Hall MHD.

Combined Publications


T. Asai, H. Itagaki, H. Numasawa, Y. Terashima, Y. Hirano, and A. Hirose, “A compact and continuously driven supersonic plasma and neutral source,“ Reviews of Scientific Instruments 81, 10E119 (2010).


Y.S. Li, Y. Tang, Q. Ynag, A. Hirose, “Effects of nanoscale Ni, Al, and Ni-Al interlayers on nucleation and growth of diamond on Si,“ Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology 28, 1056-1059 (2010)


N. Joiner, A. Hirose, and W. Dorland, “Parallel magnetic field perturbations in gyrokinetic simulations,“ Physics of Plasmas 17, 072104 (2010).


J.M. Maley, T.K. Sham, A. Hirose, Q. Yang, M.P. Bradley, R. Sammynaiken, “Chemical reactions and applications of the reductive surface of porous silicon,“ Journal of Nanoscience and Technology 10, 6332-6339 (2010)


Y.S. Li, Y. Tang, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Growth and adhesion failure of diamond thin films deposited on stainless steel with ultra-thin dual metal interlayers,“ Applied Surface Science 26, 7653-7657 (2010).


A. Hirose, “Radiation pressure on a dielectric surface,“ Canadian Journal of Physics 88, 247-252 (2010)


J.Z.G. Ma and A. Hirose, “Lower-hybrid (LH) oscillitons evolved from ion-acoustic (IA)/ion-cyclotron (IC) solitary waves: effect of electron inertia,“ Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 17, 245-268 (2010).


Y. Tang, Y.S. Li, Q. Yang, and A. Hirose, “Deposition and characterization of diamond coatings on WC-Co cutting tools with W/Al interlayer,“ Diamond and Related Materials 19, 496-499 (2010).


Y. Tang, Y.S. Li, Q. Yang and A. Hirose, “Fabrication and orientation control of diamond nanotips by broad ion beam etching,“ Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics 43, 135301 (2010).


Y.S. Li, Y. Tang, Q. Yang, J. Maley, R. Sammynaiken, T. Regier, C. Xiao and A. Hirose, “Ultrathin W-Al Dual Interlayer Approach to Depositing Smooth and Adherent Nanocrystalline Diamond Films on Stainless Steel,“ ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 2, 335-338 (2010).


A. Pant, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Repetitive operation of the University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector,“ Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 165, 96-105 (2010).


G.S. Germaine, C. Xiao and A. Hirose, “Plasma flow measurements in improved modes on STOR-M and CASTOR tokamaks,“ Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 165 138-164 (2010).


M. Dreval, D. Rohraff, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Retarding field energy analyzer for the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified plasma boundary,“ Review of Scientific Instruments 80 103505 (2010)


J.Z.G. M and A. Hirose, “Non-wave mechnanism of transverde ion heating in magnetic flux tubes,“ Physica Scripta 80, 025501 (2009).


A. Hirose and R. Dick, “Fresnel's foumulae and the Minkowski momentum,“ Canadian Journal of Physics 87, 407-410 (2009).


D. Trembach, C. Xiao, M. Dreval, and A. Hirose, “Diamagnetic measurements in the STOR-M tokamak by a flux loop system exterior to the vacuum vessel,“ Review of Scientific Instruments 80, 053502 (2009).


N. Joiner and A. Hirose, “Gyro-kinetic verification of the persistence of kinetic ballooning mode in the MHD second stability regime,“ Physics of Plasmas 16, 069902 (2009).


T. Hamilton, R.G. Wilks, M.V. Yablonski, Q. Yang, M.N. Foursa, A. Hirose, V.N. Vasilets, and A. Moewes, “Determining the sp(2)/sp(3) bonding concentrations of carbon films using X-ray absorption spectroscopy,“ Canadian Journal of Physics 86, 1401-1407 (2008).


C. Xiao, T. Niu, J.E. Morelli, C. Paz Soldan, M. Dreval, S. Elgriw, D. Rohraff, D. Trembach, and A. Hirose,“Design and initial operation of multichord soft x-ray detection arrays on the STOR-M tokamak,“ Review of Scientific Instruments 79, 10E926 (2008).


N. Joiner and A. Hirose, “Gyrokinetic verification of the persistence of kinetic ballooning modes in the magnetohydrodynamic second stability regime“, Physics of Plasmas 15, 082107 (2008).


M. Dreval, C. Xiao, D. Trembach, A. Hirose, S. Elgriw, A. Pant, D. Rohraff, and T. Niu, “Simultaneous evolution of plasma rotation, radial electric field, MHD activity and plasma confinement in the STOR-M tokamak “, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 50, 095014 (2008).


A. Hirose and N. Joiner,“ Short wavelength ballooning modes in tokamaks, in New Aspects of Plasma Physics “, Ed. P.K. Shukla, L. Stenflo and B. Eliasson, (World Scientific, Singapore, 2008), p. 476.


A. Hirose, M. Dreval, S. Elgriw, O. Mitarai, A. Pant, M. Peng, D. Rohraff, A.K. Singh, D. Trembach, and C. Xiao, “Recent results from the STOR-M tokamak “, in Plasma and Fusion Science, Ed. C. Varandas and C. Silva (AIP, New York, 2008), Vol. 996, pp.14-23.


Y.S. Li, Y. Tang, Q. Yang, S. Shimada, R. Wei, K.Y. Lee, and A. Hirose, “Al-enhanced nucleation and adhesion of diamond films on WC-Co substrates “, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials 26, 465-471 (2008).


N. Dreval, C. Xiao, D. Trembach, A. Hirose, “Heavy ion beam probe diagnostics for the STIR-M tokamak: numeical simulations and design features, Plasma Devices and Operations 16, 127-134 (2008).


Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S.L. Yang, Y.S. Li, and A. Hirose, “Simultaneous growth of diamond thin films and carbon nanotubes at temperatures lower than 500 degree C“, Carbon 46, 589-595 (2008).


X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Field electron emission characteristics of chemical vapor depsoition diamond thin films with controlled sp(2) phase concentration“, Thin Solid Films 516, 4217-4221 (2008).


Y.S. Li, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Effects of various alloying elements on diamond growth on Fe-Cr steels“, Thin Solid Films 516, 3089-3093 (2008).


D. Liu, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Performance of the university of saskatchewan compact torus injector with curved accceleration eelctrodes“, Review of Scientific Instruments 79, 013502 (2008).


N. Joiner and A. Hirose, “Effects of magnetosonic perturbations on electron temperature gardient driven modes and the stability of skin depth sized electron ballooning modes“, Physics of Plasmas 14, 112111 (2007).


Y.S. Li and A. Hirose, “The effects of substrate compositions on adhesion of diamond films deposited on Fe-base alloys“, Surface and Coatings Technology 202, 280-287 (2007).


X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Synthesis and field electron emission characteristics of diamond multilayer films grown by graphite etching “, Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics 40, 4010-4014 (2007).


X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Effects of hydrogen flow rate on the growth and field electron emission characteristics of diamond thin films synthesized through graphite etching“, Diamond and Related Materials 16, 1623-1627 (2007).


Q. Yang, S. Yang, Y.S. Li, X. Lu, and A. Hirose, “NEXAFS characterization of nanocrystalline diamond thin films synthesized with high methane concentrations, Diamond and Related Materials 16, 730-734 (2007).


Y.S. Li, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, Q. Yang, and S. Shimada, “Diamond growth on a Si substrate with ceramic interlayers“, Journal of American Ceramic Society 90, 1427-1433 (2007).


Q.Q. Yang, S.L. Yang, C.J. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Transformation of carbon nanotabes to diamond in microwave hydrogen plasma“, Materials Letters 61, 2208-2211 (2007).


Y.S. Li and A. Hirose, “Diamond growth on Fe-Cr-Al alloy by H-2-plasma enhanced graphite etching“, Journal of Applied Physics 101, 073503 (2007).


A. Hirose, “Skin size ballooning mode in tokamaks“, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 49, 145-150 (2007).


Y.S. Li, S. Shimada, H. Kiyono, X. Lu and A. Hirose, “Mechanical and field emission properties of CGedSi(C,N) films synthesized by PECVD from HMDS precursors,” Diamond and Relatet Materials (In press).


Y.S. Li, S. Shimada, H. Kiyono, X. Lu and A. Hirose, “Mechanical and field emission properties of CGedSi(C,N) films synthesized by PECVD from HMDS precursors,” Diamond and Relatet Materials (In press).


Y.S. Li, S. Shimada, and A. Hirose, “Synthesis of Al2O3-SiO2 films by Ar/O2 plasma enhanced CVD from alkoxide precursors,” Chemical Vapor Deposition (In press).


Q. Yang, S.N. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Transformation of carbon nanotubes to diamond in microwave hydrogen plasma,” Material Letters (In press).


W. Chen, X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, R. Sammynaiken, J. Manly, and A. Hirose, “Effects of gas flow rate on diamond deposition in a microwave plasma reactor,” Thin Solid Films (In press).


X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Nonlinear Fowler-Nordheim plots of the field electron emission from graphitic nanocones: influence of nonuniform field enhancement factors,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 39, 3375-3379 (2006).


W. Chen, C. Xiao, Q. Yang, S. Yang, and A. Hirose, “Controlled synthesis of tungsten and tunsten oxide nanorod films,” Materials Research Innovations 10, 169-178 (2006) (invited paper).


A. Hirose, C. Xiao, O. Mitarai, J. Morelli, H.M. Skarsgard, “STOR-M tokamak design and instrumentation,” Physics in Canada 62, 111-120 (2006) (invited paper).


D. Liu, C. Xiao, A.K. Singh, and A. Hirose, “Bench test and preliminary results of vertical compact torus injection experiments on the STOR-M tokamak,” Nuclear Fusion 46, 104-109 (2006).


X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Field electron emission of carbon-based nanocone films,” Applied Physics A - Materials and Processing 82, 293-296 (2006).


Q. Yang, T. Hamilton, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, and A. Moewes, “Plasma-enhanced synthesis of diamond nanocone films,” Thin Solid Films 494, 110-115 (2006).


Q. Yang, T. Senda, and A. Hirose, “Sliding wear behavior of WC-12%Co coatings at elevated temperatures,” Surface and Coatings Technology 200, 4208-4212 (2006).


A. Hirose, S. Livingstone, and A.K. Singh, “On dependence of thermal transport in tokamaks” Nuclear Fusion 45, 1628-1633 (2005).


Q. Yang, W. Chen, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, and R. Sammynaiken, “Simultaneous Growth of Well-aligned Diamond and Graphitic Carbon Nanostructures through Graphite Etching,” Diamond and Related Materials 14, 1683-1687 (2005).


M.P. Gryaznevich, E. Del Bosco, A. Malaquias, G. Mank, G. von Oost, Y. He, H. Hegazy, M. Hron, A. Hirose, B. Kuteev, G.O. Ludwig, I.C. Mascimento, C. Silva, and G.M. Yorobyev, “Joint research using small tokamaks,” Nuclear fusion 45, 1-10 (2005).


C.J. Xiao, D. Liu, S. Livingstone, A.K. Singh, E. Zhang, A. Hirose “Tangential and vertical compact torus injection experiments on the STOR-M tokamak,” Plasma Science and Technology 7, 2701-2704 (2005).


Q. Yang, C. Xiao, W. Chen, and A. Hirose, “Synthesis of diamond films and nanotips through graphite etching,” Carbon 43, 748-754 (2005).


Q. Yang, C.J. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Plasma enhanced deposition of nano-structured carbon films,” Plasma Science and Technology 7, 2660-2664 (2005).


W. Chen, C. Xiao, Q. Yang, A. Moewes, and A. Hirose, “The effects of bias polarity on the growth of diamond films,” Canadian Journal of Physics 83, 723-759 (2005).



Q. Yang, W. Chen, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, and M. Bradley, “Low temperature synthesis of diamond thin films through graphite etching in a microwave hydrogen plasma,” Carbon 43, 2635-2638 (2005).


J.E. Morelli, A. Hirose, and H.C. Wood, �Fuzzy logic based plasma position controller for STOR-M,� IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 13, 328-337 (2005).


V.N. Vasilets, A. Hirose, Q. Yang, A. Singh, R. Sammynaiken, Yu.M. Shulga, A.V. Kuznetsov, and V.I. Sevastianov, 2005, �Hot wire plasma deposition of doped DLC films on fluorocarbon polymers for biomedical applications,� in Plasma Processes and Polymers, (Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co., Weinheim, Germany, 2005), pp. 65-76.


Full paper (345kB)        Abstract


P. Franz , L. Marrelli, P. Piovesan, B.E. Chapman, P. Martin, I. Predebon, G. Spizzo, R.B. White, and C. Xiao, “Observations of multiple magnetic islands in the core of a reversed field pinch,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 125001 (March 2004).



C. Xiao, D. Liu, S. Livingstone, A.K. Singh, E. Zhang, and A. Hirose, “Tangential and Vertical Compact Torus Injection Experiments on the STOR-M Tokamak,” Plasma Sci. Tech., accepted August 2004.



Q. Yang, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Plasma Enhanced Deposition of Nano-Structured Carbon Films,” Plasma Sci. Tech., accepted August 2004.



D. Liu, C. Xiao, A. K. Singh, and A. Hirose, “Vertical Injection of Compact Torus into the STOR-M Tokamak,” 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Vilamoura , Portugal , Nov. 1-6, 2004 , (IAEA, Vienna ), Paper No. FT/P6-38.

PPL-257 (71kB)


A. Hirose, “On q dependence of thermal transport in tokamaks,” 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Vilamoura , Portugal , Nov. 1-6, 2004 , (IAEA, Vienna ), Paper No. TH/P6-4.

Full paper (131kB)    Abstract


B. Waduwawwatte, B.C. Si, and C.J. Xiao, “Water Conduction Porosity from Tension Infiltrometer Measurements,” Soil Sci. Society of Am. J. 68, 760-769 (2004).

PPL-256 (71kB)        Abstract


A.I. Smolyakov, H.R. Wilson, M. Ottaviani, and F. Porcelli, “Ion sound effects on magnetic islands,” Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 46, L1-L6 (March 2004)

PPL-255 (244kB)      HTML


F. Detering, A. Smolyakov, and I. Khabibrakhmanov, “Transverse stability of strongly nonlinear ion acoustic modes,” Physics Letters A 324, 465-471 (April 2004).

PPL-254 (102kB)      Abstract


A.I. Smolyakov and E. Lazzaro, “On neoclassical effects in the theory of magnetic islands,” Physics of Plasmas 11, 4353-4360 (September 2004).

Full paper (756kB)    Abstract


F. Porcelli, S.V. Annibaldi, D. Borgogno, P. Buratti, F. Califano, R. Coelho, E. Giovannozzi, D. Grasso, E. Lazzaro, F. Pegoraro, M. Ottaviani and A.I. Smolyakov, “Predicting the behaviour of magnetic reconnection processes in fusion burning plasma experiments,” Nuclear Fusion 44, 362-371 (February 2004).

PPL-253 (411kB)     Abstract


Q. Yang, W. Chen, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Synthesis of Diamond Films and Nanotips through Graphite Etching,” Carbon, accepted December 2004.

PPL-252 (78kB)        Abstract


A. Ito, A. Hirose, S. Mahajan , and S. Ohsaki, “Remarks on discrete Alfven wave spectra induced by the Hall current,” Physics of Plasmas 11, 5643-5648 (December 2004).

PPL-251 (123kB)      HTML


A. Hirose, A. Ito, S. Mahajan, and S. Ohsaki, “Relation between Hall magneto-hydrodynamics and kinetic Alfven waves,” Physics Letters A 330, 474-480 (October 2004).



Q. Yang, T. Senda, N. Kotani , and A. Hirose, “Sliding Wear Behavior and Tribofilm Formation of Ceramics at High Temperatures,” Surface and Coatings Technology 184, 270-277 (2004).

PPL-249 (92kB)        Abstract


A. Ito and A. Hirose, “Eigenmode of ion acoustic instability in the presence of sheared parallel flow,” Physics of Plasmas 11, 23-27 (January 2004).

PPL-248 (82kB)        Abstract


A.K. Singh, R. Kaur, S.K. Mattoo, and A. Hirose, “Observation of radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuations in toroidal plasma,” Physics of Plasmas 11, 328-331 (January 2004).



A. Hirose, “Short wavelength temperature gradient modes in tokamaks,” Recent Research Development in Plasmas 3, 1-21 (2004). (invited review paper)

PPL-246 (960kB)


J.E. Morelli, A. Hirose, and H.C. Wood, “Fuzzy logic based plasma position controller for STOR-M,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 13, 328-337 (March 2005).

PPL-245 (63.7kB)


A. Hirose, H. Li, S. Livingstone, and X.F. Lu, “On diffraction of electromagnetic waves by an aperture in a conducting screen,” Canadian Journal of Physics 82, 495-500 (2004).

PPL-244 (303kB)      Abstract


C. Xiao, A. Hirose, and S. Sen, “Improved confinement induced by tangential injection of compact torus into the STOR-M tokamak,” Physics of Plasmas 11, 4041-4049 (August 2004).

PPL-243 (167kB)      Abstract


A. Hirose, “Electron thermal diffusivity due to the electron temperature gradient mode,” Physical Review Letters 92, 025001 (January 2004).

PPL-242 (301kB)      Abstract


A. Hirose, D. Liu, and S. Livingstone, “Effects of charge nonneutrality and finite beta on the electron temperature gradient modes in tokamaks,” Canadian Journal of Physics 82, 167-176 (March 2004).

PPL-241 (896kB)      Abstract


V.N. Vasilets, A. Hirose, Q. Yang, A. Singh, R. Sammynaiken, M. Foursa, and Y.M. Shulga, “Characterization of doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by hot wire plasma sputtering of graphite,” Applied Physics A 79, 2079-2084 (December 2004).


V.N. Vasilets, A. Hirose, Q. Yang, A. Singh, R. Sammynaiken, Yu.M. Shulga, A.V. Kuznetsov, and V.I. Sevastianov, “Hot wire plasma deposition of doped DLC films on fluorocarbon polymers for biomedical applications,” to be published in Plasma Processes and Polymers, (Springer).

PPL-239 (1,243kB)    HTML


Q. Yang, C. Xiao, W. Chen, and A. Hirose, “Selective growth of diamond and carbon nanostructures by hot filament chemical vapor deposition,” Diamond and Related Materials 13, 433-437 (March 2004).


Full paper (452kB)    Abstract


S. Qin, M.P. Bradley, P.L. Kellerman, “Faraday Dosimetry Characteristics of PIII Doping Processes,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 31, 369-376 (June 2003).

Full paper (873kB)    Abstract


P. Martin, 29 other authors and teams, C. Xiao, 2 other authors, “Overview of Quasi Single Helicity Experiments in Reversed Field Pinches,” Nucl. Fusion, 43, 1855-1862 (December 2003).

Full paper (422kB)    Abstract


J.S. Sarff, and 31 other authors, C. Xiao, “Tokamak-like confinement at high beta and low toroidal field in the MST Reversed Field Pinch,” Nucl. Fusion, 43, 1684-1692 (December 2003).

PPL-238 (74kB)        Abstract


C. Xiao, P. Franz, B.E. Chapman, D. Craig, W.X. Ding, G. Gadani, L. Marrelli, P. Martin, R. Pasqualotto, G. Spizzo, J.S. Sarff, S.D. Terry, “Soft-x-ray Emission, Plasma Equilibrium, and Fluctuation Studies on MST,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 74, 2157-2160 (March 2003).

Full paper (323kB)    Abstract


P.Franz, G.Gadani, R.Pasqualotto, L.Marrelli, P.Martin, G.Spizzo, P.Brunsell, B.Chapman, F.Paganucci, P.Rossetti, C. Xiao, “Compact soft x-ray multichord camera: design and initial operation,” 2002, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 74, 2152-2156 (March 2003).

Full paper (132kB)    Abstract


EJ. Kim, P.H. Diamond, M. Malkov, T.S. Hahm, K. Itoh, S.I. Itoh, S. Champeaux, I. Gruzinov, O. Gurcan, C. Holland, M.N. Rosenbluth, A. Smolyakov, “Non-perturbative models of intermittency in drift-wave turbulence: towards a probabilistic theory of anomalous transport,” Nuclear Fusion 43, 961-968 (September 2003).

PPL-237 (112kB)      Abstract


S.I. Krasheninnikov and A.I. Smolyakov, “On neutral wind and blob motion in linear devices,” Physics of Plasmas 10, 3020-2021 (July 2003).

PPL-236 (148kB)      Abstract


Y. Tyshetskiy, A. Smolyakov, V. Godyak, “Reduction of the Electron Heating in Low Frequency Anomalous Skin Effect Regime,” Physical Review Letters 90, 255002 (June 2003).

PPL-235 (132kB)      Abstract


A. Smolyakov, V. Godyak, Y. Tyshetskiy, “Nonlinear Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasmas,”  Physics of Plasmas 10, 2108-2116 (May 2003).



Q. Yang, C. Xiao, W. Chen, A. K. Singh, T. Asai and A. Hirose, “Growth mechanism and orientation control of well-aligned carbon nanotubes,” Diamond and Related Materials 12, 1482-1487 (2003).

Full paper (245kB)      Abstract

A. V. Sokolov, E. Z. Kurmaev, S. Leitch, A. Moewes, J. Kortus, L. D. Finkelstein, N. A. Skorikov, C. Xiao, and A. Hirose, “Band dispersion of MgB2, graphite and diamond from resonant inelastic scattering,” Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter 15, 2081-2089 (April 2003).

PPL-233 (71kB)        Abstract


A. Hirose and M. Elia, “Kinetic ballooning stability of internal transport barriers in tokamaks,” Physics of Plasmas 10, 1195-1198 (May 2003).

PPL-232 (296kB)      Abstract


A. Hirose, K. Edler, E. Bolster, and O. Ishihara, “Electron velocity diffusion in strong turbulence,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 31, 3-6 (February 2003).

PPL-231 (142kB)      Abstract


A. Hirose and M. Elia, “Electron temperature gradient driven skin size drift mode in tokamaks,” Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 45, L1-L7 (January 2003).

PPL-230 (202kB)      Abstract


A. K. Singh, J. Morelli, T. Asai, and A. Hirose, “Measurement of radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuations in the STOR-M tokamak,” Physics of Plasmas 10, 3451-3454 (September 2003).

PPL-229 (67kB)        Abstract


A. Hirose, “Effects of charge non-neutrality and finite beta on the electron temperature gradient mode,” Physics of Plasmas 10, 4567-4569 (November 2003).



M.P. Bradley, “High Voltage Breakdown in Vacuum: Physical Mechanisms and Engineering Design Rules,” Axcelis Technologies Internal Engineering Design Guideline (2002).

Full paper (56kB)        Abstract


S. Qin, M.P. Bradley, P.L. Kellerman, K. Saadatmand, “Measurements of secondary electron emission and plasma density enhancement for plasma exposed surfaces using an optically isolated Faraday cup,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 73, 1153-1156 (March 2002).

Full paper (114kB)      Abstract


P.L. Kellerman, V. Benveniste, M.P. Bradley, K. Saadatmand, “Particle trapping and annihilation within the extraction system of ion sources,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 73, 834-836 (February 2002).

Full paper (48kB)        Abstract


P.L. Kellerman, S. Qin, M.P. Bradley, K. Saadatmand, “Ion depletion effects in sheath dynamics during plasma immersion ion implantation- models and data,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 73, 837-839 (February 2002).

Full paper (46kB)        Abstract


S. Qin, M.P. Bradley, P.L. Kellerman, K. Saadatmand, “Measurement and analysis of deposition-etch characteristics of BF3 plasma immersion ion implantation,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 73, 840-842 (February 2002).

PDF file (150kB)      HTML


P.L. Kellerman, M.P. Bradley, and S. Qin, “Active Charge Control in PIII- enlarging the process space,” Surface and Coatings Technology 156, 77-82 (July 2002).

EX/C1-2 (490kB)      Abstract


P. Martin, L. Marrelli, G. Spizzo, P. Franz, P. Piovesan, I. Predebon, T. Bolzonella, S. Cappello, A. Cravotta, D.F. Escande, L. Frassinetti, S. Ortolani, R. Paccagnella, D. Terranova and the RFX team, B.E. Chapman, D. Craig, S.C. Prager, J.S. Sarff and the MST team,P. Brunsell, J.-A. Malmberg, J. Drake and the EXTRAP T2R team, Y. Yagi, H. Koguchi, Y. Hirano and the TPE-RX team, R.B. White, C. Sovinec, C. Xiao, R.A. Nebel, D.D. Schnack, “Overview of Quasi Single Helicity Experiments in Reversed Field Pinches,” Fusion Energy 2002, (IAEA, Vienna), (2002)

CN-94/OV/4_3 (1,614kB)      Abstract


J.S. Sarff, A.F. Almagri, J.K. Anderson, T.M. Biewer, A.P. Blair, D.L. Brower, M.D. Carter, M. Cengher, B.E. Chapman, P.K. Chattopadhyay, V.I. Davydenko, D.J. Den Hartog, W.X. Ding, F. Ebrahimi, G. Fikse, C.B. Forest, J.A. Goetz, R.W. Harvey, D. Holly, B. Hudson, A.A. Ivanov, T.W. Lovell, K.J. McCollam, P.D. Nonn, R. O’Connell, S.P. Oliva, R.I. Pinsker, S.C. Prager, J.C. Reardon, S.D. Terry, M.A. Thomas, M.D. Wyman, C. iao, and the MST Team, “Overview of Improved Confinement and Plasma Control in the MST Reversed Field Pinch,” 2002, Fusion Energy 2002, (IAEA, Vienna),

PPL-228 (130kB)      Abstract


A. Hirose and M. Elia, “Integral equation analysis of the kinetic ballooning modes in tokamaks,” Canadian Journal of Physics 80, 1517-1523 (2002). 

PPL-227 (122kB)      Abstract


A. Hirose, M. Elia, A. Smolyakov, and M. Yagi, “Short wavelength temperature gradient driven modes in tokamaks,” Physics of Plasmas 9, 1659-1666 (May 2002).



A. Hirose and M. Elia, “Integral equation based stability analysis of short wavelength drift modes in tokamaks,” in Proceedings of IAEA International Conference on Fusion Energy 2002

PPL-225 (177kB)      Abstract


C. Xiao, J. Morelli, A. Singh, O. Mitarai, T. Asai, and A. Hirose, “Study of plasma equilibrium during the ac current reversal phase in the STOR-M tokamak,”  Fusion Energy 2002, (IAEA, Vienna),

PPL-224 (194kB)      Abstract


A. Hirose and M. Elia, “Short wavelength temperature gradient gradient driven modes in tokamaks II: Electron mode,” Physics of Plasmas 9, 4664-4670 (November 2002).

PPL-223 (159kB)


A. Hirose, “Comments on ‘A mathematical error in the Lienard-Wiechert potentials’ by J. P. Wesley, Physics Essays 13, December 2000,” Physics Essays 14, 177-179 (2002).

PPL-222 (159kB)      Abstract


S. Sen, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, and R. Cairns, “Role of parallel flow in the improved confinement mode on the STOR-M tokamak,” Physical Review Letters 88, 185001 (May 2002).



A. Hirose and M. Elia, “Finite beta destabilization of skin size drift modes in tokamaks,” Physica Scripta 65, 257-260 (2002).

PPL-220 (145kB)      HTML


A. Hirose, “On transition radiation II,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry 64, 261-266 (2002).



A. Hirose, K. Edler, and O. Ishihara, “Long time behaviour of plasma diffusion in strong turbulence,” Physica Scripta 65, 261-263 (2002).

PPL-218 (119kB)      HTML


I. Gruzinov, A. Das, P. H. Diamond and A. Smolyakov, “Fast zonal field dynamo in collisionless kinetic Alfven wave turbulence,” Physics Letters A 302, 119-124 (September 2002). 

PPL-217 (124kB)      Abstract


A. Smolyakov, M. Yagi, Y. Kishimoto, “Short Wavelength Temperature Gradient Driven Modes in Tokamak Plasmas, Physical Review Letters 89, 125005 (August 2002).

PPL-216 (120kB)      Abstract


A. Smolyakov, P. Diamond, Y. Kishimoto, “Secondary instabilities of large scale flow and magnetic field in the electromagnetic short wavelength drift-Alfven wave turbulence,” Physics of Plasmas 9, 3826-3834 (September 2002).

PPL-215 (104kB)      Abstract


Y. Tyshetskiy, A. Smolyakov, V. Godyak, “Nonlocal heating in inductively coupled plasma,” Plasma Sources: Science and Technology, 11, 203- 207 (May 2002).

PPL-214 (59kB)        Abstract


A. I. Smolyakov, E. Lazzaro, R. Coelho, T. Ozeki, “Role of the shear flow profile on the stability of magnetic islands,” Physics of Plasmas 9, 371-374 (January 2002)






S. Rainville , M.P. Bradley, J.V. Porto, J.K. Thompson, and D.E. Pritchard, “Precise Measurements of the Masses of Cs, Rb and Na - A New Route to the Fine Structure Constant,” Hyperfine Interactions 132, 177-187 (2001).

PPL-213 Abstract


A. Hirose and M. Elia, “Effects of Shafranov shift on the ballooning mode in negative shear,” Comments on Modern Physics 2, C7-C14 (2001).

PPL-212 Abstract


A. Hirose, “On electric field in Coulomb gauge,” Physics Essays 4, 613-615 (2001).

PPL-211 (86.2kB) Abstract


A. Smolyakov, E. Lazzaro , M. Azumi, Y. Kishimoto, “Stabilization of magnetic islands due to plasma flow and viscosity,” Plasma Physics Controlled Fusion 43, 1661-1669 (2001).

PPL-209 (111kB) Abstract


V. Godyak, R. Piejak, B. Alexandrovich, and A. Smolyakov, “Observation of the ponderomotive effect in an inductive plasma,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology 10, 459-462 (2001).

PPL-208 (384kB) Abstract


P.H. Diamond, S. Champeaux, M. Malkov, A. Das, I. Gruzinov, M.N. Rosenbluth, C. Holland, B. Wecht, A. Smolyakov, F.L. Hinton, Z. Lin, T.S. Hahm, “Secondary instability in drift wave turbulence as a mechanism for zonal flow and avalanche formation,” Nuclear Fusion 41, 1067-1080 (2001).

PPL-207 (1.38MB) Abstract


A.I. Smolyakov, A.V. Kustov, R.A. Makarevitch, “Secondary instabilities in the dynamics of the Farley-Buneman fluctuations,” Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 15511-15518 (2001).

PPL-206 (92kB) Abstract


M. A. Malkov, P.H. Diamond, A. Smolyakov, “On the stability of drift wave spectra with respect to zonal flow excitation,” Physics of Plasmas 8, 1553-1558 (2001).

PPL-201 (73kB) Abstract


A. Smolyakov, P.H. Diamond, M. Medvedev, “Role of ion diamagnetic effects in the generation of large scale flows in toroidal ion temperature gradient driven mode turbulence,” Physics of Plasmas 7, 3987-3992 (2001).



J.D. Bernstein, P.L. Kellerman, and M.P. Bradley, “Effects of Dopant Deposition on p+/n and n+/p Shallow Junctions formed by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation,” Proceedings of International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 2000 (IIT 2000), 464-467 (2000)


P.L. Kellerman, J.D. Bernstein, and M.P. Bradley, “Ion Energy Distributions in Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation- Theory and Experiment,” Proceedings of International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 2000 (IIT 2000), 484-487, (2000)



A. Smolyakov, V. Godyak, and Y. Tyshetskiy, “Effect of the electron thermal motion on the ponderomotive force in inductive plasma,” Physics of Plasmas 7, 3857-3860 (2000).

PPL-205 Abstract


A. Smolyakov, P.H. Diamond, I. Gruzinov, A. Das, M. Malkov, V.I. Schevchenko, “Shear flow instabilities in magnetized plasma and geostrophic fluids,” in International School of Plasma Physics, Theory of Fusion Plasmas, ed. by J. W. Connor, Societa Italiana di Fisica, Editrice Compositori Bologna, 199-211 (2000).

PPL-204 November 2000 Abstract


A. Hirose and J. Wishart, “On transition radiation,” Canadian Journal of Physics 78, 997-1003 (2000).

PPL-203 November 2000 Abstract


V. Godyak, R. Piejak, B. Alexandrovich, and A. Smolyakov, “Nonlinear radio-frequency potential in an inductive plasma, Plasma Sources Science and Technology 9, 541-544 (2000).

PPL-202 November 2000 Abstract


A. Smolyakov, V. Godyak, A. Duffy, “On nonlinear effects in inductively coupled plasmas,” Physics of Plasmas 7, 4755-4762 (2000).

PPL-200 October 2000 Abstract


C. Xiao, D.R. McColl, A. Hirose, S. Sen, “Mechanism of H-mode triggering by CT injection in the STOR-M tokamak,” Fusion Energy 2000, IAEA-Vienna, EXP4_31

PPL-199 May 2000 Abstract


A.I. Smolyakov, P.H. Diamond, and V.I. Shevchenko, “Zonal flow generation by parametric instability in magnetized plasmas and geostrophic fluids,” Physics of Plasmas, 7, 1349-1351 (2000).

PPL-198 April 2000 Abstract


C. Xiao and A. Hirose, “The role of plasma biasing in H-modes in the STOR-M tokamak,” Contributions to Plasma Physics 40, 184-189 (2000).

PPL-197 April 2000 Abstract


A.B. Mikhailovski, V.D. Pustovitov, A.I. Smolyakov, V.S. Tsypin, “Regularized magnetic islands. II. The role of the polarization current,” Physics of Plasmas 7, 1214-1223 (2000).

PPL-196 April 2000 Abstract


A.B. Mikhailovski, V.D. Pustovitov, V.S. Tsypin, A.I. Smolyakov, “Regularized magnetic islands. I. Hyperviscosity and profile functions,” Physics of Plasmas 7, 1204-1213 (2000).

PPL-195 April 2000 Abstract


A. Hirose and M. Elia, “Finite beta destabilization of long wavelength drift modes in tokamaks,” Canadian Journal of Physics 78, 277-283 (2000).

PPL -194 March 2000 Abstract


A.B. Mikhailovski, V.D. Pustovitov, A.I. Smolyakov, “On collisionality dependence of the neoclassical tearing modes,” Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 42, 309-316. (2000).

PPL-193 February 2000 Abstract


A. Hirose, “On finite beta stabilization of the toroidal ion temperature gradient mode,” Physics of Plasmas 7, 433-436 (2000)

PPL-192 January 2000 Abstract


A.I. Smolyakov, P.H. Diamond, M. Malkov “Coherent structure phenomena in drift wave-zonal flow turbulence, ” Physical Review Letters, 84, 491-494

PPL-191 January 2000 Abstract


E.S. Furkal, A.I. Smolyakov, “The generalized transport equations for arbitrary collision frequency in a weakly ionized plasma,” Physics of Plasmas 7, 122-134 (2000).


PPL-67 (802kB) Abstract

O. Mitarai and A. Hirose, “ Model Circuit Analysis for the Current Drive Operations in a Tokamak, ” Nuclear Fusion 24, 481 (1984)


 (September 1983) Original Laboratory Report including circuit details.


Dr. Chijin Xiao

Department of Physics & Engineering Physics
University of Saskatchewan
116 Science Place, Rm 163
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2

(306) 966-6415