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Recent Publications

1. PUBLICATIONS (2012-2017) (Refereed journals). The numbers before 1st authors are career totals for papers since 1966  

257 Li, Zhenhua, Alan Manson and Yanping Li, 2017. Madden Julian Oscillation and summer Precipitation Anomaly in the Canadian Prairie. Accepted…

256 Li, Zhenhua, Alan H. Manson, Yanping Li, Chris E. Meek, 2017. Circulation Characteristics of Persistent Cold Spells in Central-Eastern North America. “Special Issue in Commemoration of Shaowu Wang”, The Chinese Meteorological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Vol 31, p 250-260, Feb 2017.

255 Hall, Chris M., Silje E. Holmen, Chris E. Meek, Alan H. Manson, and Satonori Nozawa, 2016. Change in turbopause altitude at 52 and 70N. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 2299-2308, 2016.

254 Takahashi, T., Nozawa, S., Tsutsumi, M., et al., incl. Manson A., 2014. A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data. Ann. Geophys., 32, 1195-1205, 2014.

253 Tang, Yihuan, Dou, Xiankang, Li, Tao et al. [including Alan Manson], 2014. Gravity wave characteristics in the mesopause region revealed from OH airglow imager observations over Northern Colorado. J. Geophys. Res: Space Physics, 119, 630-645, 2014.

252 Matthias, V., P. Hoffmann, P., A. Manson et al., 2013. The impact of planetary waves on the latitudinal displacement of sudden stratospheric warmings. Ann. Geophys., 31, 1397-1415, 2013.

251 Meek, C.E.; A. H. Manson, W.K. Hocking, and J.R. Drummond, 2013. Eureka, 80N, SKiYMET meteor radar temperatures compared with Aura MLS values. Ann Geophys., 31, 1267-1277. [doi: 10.5194/angeo-31-1267-2013]           

250 Chang L. C.; Ward W. E.; Palo S. E.; et al. [includes Manson], 2012: Comparison of diurnal tide in models and ground-based observations during the 2005 equinox CAWSES tidal campaign. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-terrestrial Physics, 78-79 (2012) 19-30, [doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2010.12.010]

249 Jacobi Ch; Hoffmann P.; Liu R. Q.; et al. [includes Manson], 2012: Long-term trends, their changes, and interannual variability of Northern Hemisphere midlatitude MLT winds. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial physics, 75-76 (2012) 81-91, [doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.03.016]

248 Shengbo, C., Meek C. E., Manson A. H., Chshyolkova T., 2011. The 10-day planetary wave examined by Odin/OSIRIS ozone profiles during late March 2002: comparison with UKMO and MF radar data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 32, 6, 1531-1544, [doi:10.1080/01431160903571817]

 

2. SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS (2002-11) with Commentary (selected to demonstrate range of activity)

X. Xu, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, and J. R. Drummond, 2011. Quasi-biennial modulation of the wintertime Arctic temperature as revealed by Aura-MLS measurements. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L08806, doi:10.1029/ 2011GL047075.
This study investigates the interannual variability of zonal mean temperature in the wintertime Northern Hemisphere stratosphere and mesosphere measured by Aura-MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). Results show that the wintertime Arctic temperature is modulated by the phase of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) wind. On the whole, the 40-hPa QBO easterly phase corresponds to a warmer (colder) northern polar stratosphere (mesosphere) and vice versa. Accordingly, composite differences show that the planetary waves in the winter Arctic stratosphere and lower mesosphere are stronger when the equatorial 40-hPa QBO in its easterly phase. The presented findings are consistent with the established relationship between the QBO phase and the northern winter polar vortex.

X. Xu, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, et al., 2009a. Vertical and inter-hemispheric links in the stratosphere-mesosphere as revealed by the day-to-day variability of Aura-MLS temperature data. Annales Geophysicae, 27, 3387-3409.

Relevance/Why does this exist?
The equivalent paragraph in paper two [SDT. PW global coupling] is also useful to read, before or after this. Although the need for an atmos refrigerator was apparent in ~ 1965 from the magnificent global contours of winds and temps pole to pole and 0-100km of Richard Reed…it was not until Murgatroyd 1970s and Lindzen 1981 did the GW link-work [not together or simultaneously] was it realized that hemispheric meridional winds, temps, and GW fluxes were all involved, linked and essential. Early GCMs used friction, but then GW params did the job [too easily!]. Until this paper, no one had shown, using a global data set, and one measured parameter, the linkages between height-regions in both SH and NH. We used short and long time scales, the best statistics/sig tests, and the Coup d’Grace the need to consider the longitudinal asymmetry of the polar vortex/winds/temps in the NH [SH is OK as a zonal mean…one day we will split it too]. The time to get this paper together was why Xu said to me 12 months after arriving…”But I have not written a paper this 1st year!” Once this was done papers 2 and 3 flowed fast…and he is now like a mighty river flowing through a gorge, or a duck heading for its nest at 50 feet altitude! This is a very good paper…

Abstract
The coupling processes in the middle atmosphere have been a subject of intense research activity because of their effects on atmospheric circulation, structure, variability, and the distribution of chemical constituents. In this study, the day-to-day variability of Aura-MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) temperature data are used to reveal the vertical and inter-hemispheric coupling processes in the stratosphere-mesosphere during four northern hemisphere winters (2004/5-2007/8). The UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office) assimilated data and mesospheric winds from MF (medium frequency) radars are also applied to help highlight the coupling processes.
In this study, a clear vertical link can be seen between the stratosphere and mesosphere during winter months. The coolings and reversals of northward meridional winds in the polar winter mesosphere are often observed in relation to warming events (Sudden Stratospheric Warming, SSW for short) and the associated changes in zonal winds in the polar winter stratosphere. An upper-mesospheric cooling usually precedes the beginning of the warming in the stratosphere by 1-2 days. Compared with previous studies, this work systematically reveals these vertical connections based upon a larger observational dataset (multiple years; more parameters; higher vertical resolution; and combination with the vortex characteristics).
The characterization of the vortex for each winter is presented to provide perspective for the statistical analyses later within the paper. The vortices shown and discussed demonstrated strong and variable distortion and displacement, usually into the Scandinavian-Russian sector, which were most extreme during temperature disturbances (SSW or regional warmings). There were 3-4 disturbances each winter, and the three last winters (2005/6-2007/8) experienced major SSW. Given that vertical motions within the vortex and the anticyclone are opposite (downward and upward), and that zonal means are mainly used for inter-hemispheric coupling studies, it is clear that great caution has to be used in statistical analyses of these winters, and possible hemispheric coupling.
Inter-hemispheric coupling has been identified initially by a correlation analysis using the year-to-year monthly zonal mean temperature, although averages over a month [December, January and February are each used] may lose information associated with SSWs. December provides the clearest correlation. Then the correlation analyses are performed based upon the daily zonal mean temperature. From these original time sequences, positive (negative) correlations are generally found between zonal mean temperatures at the Antarctic summer mesopause and in the Arctic winter stratosphere (mesosphere) during northern mid-winters, although these correlations are dominated by the low frequency variability (i.e. the seasonal trend). Using the short-term oscillations, the statistical result, by looking for the largest magnitude of correlation within a range of time-lags (0 to 10 days; positive lags mean that the Antarctic summer mesopause is lagging), indicates that the temporal variability of zonal mean temperature at the Antarctic summer mesopause is also positively (negatively) correlated with the polar winter stratosphere (mesosphere) during three out of the four winters. The remaining winter (2006/7) has more complex correlations structures; correspondingly the polar vortex was distinguished this winter. The correlations are also provided using temperatures in northern longitudinal sectors in a comparison with the Antarctic-mesopause zonal mean temperature. For northern mid-high latitudes (~50-70ºN), temperatures in Scandinavia-Eastern Europe and in the Pacific-Western Canada longitudinal sectors often have opposite signs of correlations with zonal mean temperatures near the Antarctic summer mesopause during northern mid-winters. The statistical results are shown to be associated with the northern hemisphere’s polar vortex characteristics.

Figure 5 Correlation coefficient for daily zonal mean temperature at each latitude/pressure with respect to the same parameter at the Antarctic summer polar mesopause (~0.002 hPa, 80-85ºS, position marked with a ‘×’). The correlations are based on the day-to-day variability over 2004/5 winter (January 24 to March 5), 2005/6 winter (December 26 to February 4), 2006/7 winter (December 26 to March 5) and 2007/8 winter (December 26 to March 5), respectively. The white lines indicate the 95% level of significance.

Comments on Figure 5: Inter-hemispheric coupling in the stratosphere-mesosphere using sequences of daily zonal mean temperature

Now we turn to the correlation analysis with the daily temperatures (3-day means, centered on the middle day). Figure 5 shows the correlation coefficients between zonal mean temperatures near the Antarctic summer polar mesopause (0.002hPa, ~90km, 80-85ºN) and zonal mean temperatures at each global latitude band and pressure level during four winters. The correlations are for the following time intervals: 2004/5 winter (January 24 to March 5), 2005/6 winter (December 26 to February 4), 2006/7 winter (December 26 to March 5) and 2007/8 winter (December 26 to March 5), respectively…they cover most of the stratospheric disturbances in the respective mid-winter. Hence we can expect to be able to identify the influence on the summer mesosphere of the winter disturbances. In this paper, a Monte-Carlo shuffling method is applied to estimate the significance of correlation (e.g. Ebisuzaki, 1997; Usoskin et al., 2006). This spectral method ensures that the significances are appropriate to the degrees of freedom existing in each of the time sequences and hence correlations.

Inspection of Fig. 5 indicates that positive (negative) correlation coefficient values are generally observed in (above) the lower-middle stratosphere (~16-40 km) over high northern latitudes during these winters. Compared to other winters, the 2006/7 winter shows weak positive correlation in the middle mesosphere (~75 km) and a smaller area of positive (negative) correlation in (above) the lower-middle stratosphere (~16-40 km) for high northern latitudes. No significant correlation is found in the middle-upper mesosphere (80-97 km) over high northern latitudes in winters 2005/6 and 2007/8. Other clear features are the negative and significant correlations in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere of the SH summer, in comparison with the middle-upper mesosphere. Both of these areas of significant correlation extend out to low-middle latitudes (circa 30ºS). This is interesting, as anti-correlations between temperature variations in stratosphere and mesosphere are usually not the subject of discussion in the summer hemisphere. Presumably the summer stratosphere is generally warmer due to long hours of insolation, and the mesosphere cooler due to the GW-driven northward flow toward the Arctic (Lindzen, 1981). The correlations in figure 5 are showing variations about those mean states. Finally, in the winter hemisphere, at latitudes outside the polar vortex (circa 50ºN) and extending to the equator, there are areas of significant anti-correlation with height-regions within the vortex. These will be associated with variations in the strength of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (Salby, 1996; Shepherd, 2000).

The significant positive correlation coefficients in the polar winter stratosphere indicate that when the polar winter stratosphere gets warmer, the polar summer mesosphere gets warmer too. This link matches with the inter-hemispheric connection suggested on the basis of model studies or the
year-to-year variability of monthly averaged observations (e.g. Becker and Fritts, 2006; Karlsson et al., 2007, 2009). The intermediary phenomenon is the variable meridional flow, which is initially forced by GW, such that air-flows into the winter mesosphere are weakened or reversed, leading to winter mesospheric cooling. However, we must be careful in the interpretation of such a connection because these correlations in Fig. 4 are dominated by the low frequency variability (i.e. the seasonal trend) in the sequences. We find similar correlation patterns (not shown) if only low frequency variability in zonal mean temperature sequence is used. Because of this, these correlations are not sensitive to the time lag between the sequences, i.e. the correlation coefficient varies little over a wide range of time lags. Hence, for the original sequences of zonal mean temperature (Fig. 5), correlations have been calculated with simultaneous time series.


Fig. 6 Correlation coefficient for temperature over 60-65ºN at each longitude/pressure with respect to zonal mean temperature at the Antarctic summer mesopause (~0.002 hPa, 80-85ºS, position cannot be marked in this figure). The white line indicates the 95% level of significance. Time lags are applied based upon the results from Fig. 12. See text for details.

Comments on Fig 6: Longitudinal variability
The aforementioned correlations are based on the temporal variability of zonal mean temperature. However, we know the temperatures in the winter hemisphere have longitudinal dependence. In particular, the zonal asymmetry of temperature over the winter mid-high latitudes is most obvious during the disturbed days…above figures. Compared to previous correlations with zonal mean temperatures, the correlation with temperatures in different longitudinal sectors in the NH might give more details of the inter-hemispheric connection. Figure 6 shows the correlation between zonal mean temperature at the Antarctic summer mesopause and temperature over 60-65ºN at each longitude sector and pressure level. The SH zonal mean temperature was used because the longitudinal variations were very small in the local summers. Time sequences of temperatures were detrended before calculating correlations for figure 6. To keep consistent with lags giving maximum correlation for theses higher frequency variations (15days and less) in temperature time lags of 0, 6, 2, and 6 days between the summer mesopause and the winter stratosphere-lower mesosphere (~16-80 km), and of 1, 8, 3, and 8 days between the summer mesopause and the winter upper mesosphere (~80-97 km) were respectively applied to the correlations for the 2004/5, 2005/6, 2006/7, and 2007/8 winters in figure 6.. On the whole, the correlations show opposite signs for Scandinavia-Eastern Europe and the Pacific-Western Canada longitudinal quadrants in these four winters (Fig. 6). This is an indicative of temperature asymmetries. As shown in the vortices of figures 1 and 3, Scandinavia-Eastern Europe (the Pacific Western-Canada) is usually occupied by the polar vortex or cyclone (anti-cyclone) near the disturbance dates.
In winter 2004/5, the longitude sector dominated by positive (negative) correlations in the stratosphere (mesosphere) is only slightly larger than that with negative (positive) in the stratosphere (mesosphere). This year did not experience a major SSW, meaning that the zonal asymmetries were not as large as during the other years. [So the correlations using zonal mean temperatures show very weak positive (negative) values in the stratosphere (mesosphere) over 60-65ºN]. During the 2005/6 and 2007/8 winters, stratospheric (mesospheric) positive (negative) correlations appeared at most of mid-latitude longitudes. In contrast, negative (positive) correlations in the stratosphere (mesosphere) occupied the majority of mid-latitude longitudes in the 2006/7 winter. [Correspondingly, the negative (positive) correlations at the stratosphere (mesosphere) are found for the correlations using the zonal mean temperature]. All these indicate a statistical consistency between the correlations for the height versus latitude plots using zonal mean temperatures [not provided here] and for the height versus longitude plots using temperatures in different longitudinal sectors (Fig.6). This analysis also illustrates the inadequacies associated with the use of zonal mean data when dealing with time intervals and winters for which the vortex was significantly distorted and/or displaced from the pole.


A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, T. Aso, J. R. Drummond, C. M. Hall, W. K. Hocking, Ch. Jacobi, M. Tsutsumi, W. E. Ward and X. Xu, 2009. Arctic Tidal Characteristics at Eureka (80ºN, 86ºW) and Svalbard (78ºN, 16ºE) for 2006/7: Seasonal and Longitudinal Variations, Migrating and Non-Migrating Tides. Ann. Geophys., 27, 1153-1173.

Operation of a Meteor Radar at Eureka, Ellesmere Island (80ºN, 86ºW) began in February, 2006. The first 12 months of wind data (82-97 km) are combined with winds from the Adventdalen, Svalbard Island (78ºN, 16ºE) Meteor Radar to provide the first contemporaneous longitudinally spaced observations of mean winds, tides and planetary waves at such high polar latitudes. Unique polar information on diurnal non-migrating tides (NMT) is provided, as well as complementary information to that existing for the Antarctic on the semidiurnal NMT.

Zonal and meridional monthly mean winds differed significantly between Canada and Norway, indicating the influence of stationary planetary waves (SPW) in the Arctic mesopause region. Both diurnal (D) and semi-diurnal (SD) winds also demonstrated significantly different magnitudes at Eureka and Svalbard. Typically the D tide was larger at Eureka and the SD tide was larger at Svalbard. Tidal amplitudes in the Arctic were also generally larger than expected from extrapolation of high mid-latitude data. For example time-sequences from ~90 km showed D wind oscillations at Eureka of 30 m/s in February-March, and four day bursts of SD tidal winds at Svalbard reached 40 m/s in June, 2006.

Fitting of wave numbers for the migrating and non-migrating tides (MT, NMT) successfully determines dominant tides for each month and height. For the diurnal tide, NMT with s = 0, +2 (westward) dominate in non-summer months, while for the semi-diurnal tide NMT with s = +1, +3 occur most often during equinoctial or early summer months. These wave numbers are consistent with stationary planetary wave (SPW)-tidal interactions.

Assessment of the global topographic forcing and atmospheric propagation of the SPW (S=1, 2) suggests these winter waves of the northern hemisphere are associated with the 78-80ºN diurnal NMT, but that the SPW of the southern hemisphere winter have little influence on the summer Arctic tidal fields. In contrast the large SPW and NMT of the Arctic winter may be associated, consistent with Antarctic observations, with the observed occurrence of the semidiurnal NMT in the Antarctic summer.

Fig. 9 Two tide fits, using the wave numbers of the MT plus one of a range of NMT, were used to find the biggest: either the MT, which is shown here in black, or the NMT wave number in the ranges shown. The latter are appropriate to non-linear interaction with the SPW S=1 or 2.



T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Aso, S.K. Avery, C.M. Hall, W. Hocking, K. Igarashi, C. Jacobi, N. Makarov, N. Mitchell, Y. Murayama, W. Singer, D. Thorsen, M. Tsutsumi, 2007. Polar Vortex Evolution during Northern Hemispheric Winter 2004/05. Ann. Geophys., June 29 Volume 25 No. 6.

As a part of the project “Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0-100 km)” of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and medium frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office) global assimilated fields were analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter [2004/05]. The stratospheric state [15-55km] has been described using the Q-diagnostic, which distinguishes regions of rotation [cyclonic and anti-cyclonic] and strain. The stratosphere was cold during winter 2004/05, and the polar vortex strong during most of the winter. Weak disturbances occurred near Dec 31 and Feb1 [stratospheric stationary wave with zonal wave number 1 enhanced]. The strongest deformation was near Feb 25th, a “Canadian Warming”, with an off-centred and elongated vortex .The part of the vortex over Europe was stronger and eastward winds continued to be observed at 52N Collm. In contrast, over Canada winds were westward, and the eastward jet was shifted upward and equatorward. Generally, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 was characterized by weak planetary wave activity 20-90km. But, the amplitudes of the westward propagating “normal” waves increased by the end of winter and were reaching Southern Hemispheric latitudes in March. Combinations of winds from MetO, thermal winds calculated from temperatures [MLS on Aura satellite], and radar winds provided consistent data from 0- 97km. During days when the vortex [MetO-derived up to 55km] was undisturbed and strong, the radar winds from 82 km and above were consistent with vortex extension to mesopause heights; while during the days when the stratospheric vortex was deformed strong vertical wind gradients existed in the mesosphere, consistent with large thermal winds, and there were wind reversals. A continuation of this study including chemicals (O3, N2O, HCl, and ClO) from Aura is completed and discussed in Form 101. The development of the Q-diagnostic by T.C. has provided us with a powerful tool for her PDF research.

A.H. Manson, C. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, C. McLandress, S.K. Avery, D.C. Fritts, C.M. Hall, W.K. Hocking, K. Igarashi, J.W. MacDougall, Y. Murayama, D.C. Riggin, D. Thorsen, R.A. Vincent, 2006. Winter warmings, tides and planetary waves: comparisons between CMAM (with interactive chemistry) and MFR-MetO observations and data. Ann. Geophys., (10): 2493-2518.

Manson designed this study, and McLandress provided the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model [CMAM] data, now with interactive chemistry activated. Following the earlier radar-satellite comparisons with CMAM the dynamical characteristics of the model were reassessed. Time sequences of temperatures and winds at Tromso (70N) show that the model has more frequent and earlier stratospheric winter warmings than typically observed. Related…the planetary waves [PW] in CMAM are larger then observed before the winter solstice. Wavelets at two mesospheric heights (76, 85 km) and from equator to polar regions show that CMAM tides are generally larger, but planetary waves (PW) smaller, than medium frequency (MF) radar-derived values. CMAM tides for eight geographic locations and all months of the four seasons are not strikingly different from the earlier CMAM experiment; but local combinations of migrating and non-migrating tides [NMT] components within the mesosphere (circa 50-80km) were demonstrated for the first time. The dominant semi-diurnal tide of middle latitudes is again well realized in CMAM, but with little improvement. The main characteristics of the diurnal tide at low latitudes (S (1, 1) mode) are still well captured by the model, but with unobserved features: a low latitude amplitude maximum; different phases at mid-latitudes, and longitudinal differences [different mix of NMT]. The paper’s significance is due to the sensitivity of tides to background winds, temperatures, chemicals and gravity wave [GW] forcing: for the latter, model-tides are now used as diagnostic for the GW parameterizations. Further collaborations with T. Shepherd-CMAM are proposed, with the view to explore differences/chemistry diagnostically.

T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, S.K. Avery, D. Thorsen, J.W. MacDougall, W. Hocking, Y. Murayama, and K. Igarashi, 2006. Planetary wave coupling processes in the middle atmosphere (30-90 km): a study involving MetO and MF radar data. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 353-368.

The focus of the PhD for the first author was to characterize the planetary waves [PW] and coupling of the middle atmosphere. MetO assimilated data [<50km] and mesospheric winds from five Medium Frequency Radars (MFR) from the CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) network were used [2000-2002]. Strong vertical coupling, especially during winter months, was demonstrated. In addition there is also weaker horizontal “inter-hemispheric” coupling during equinoxes. The time interval included austral winters and springs of two years: the unusual year 2002, during which a major stratospheric warming involving a split vortex and wind reversals occurred in the Southern Hemisphere, and a more typical year 2001. In contrast to the usually weak PW activity dominated by eastward motions, strong eastward and westward propagating waves existed during the 2002 winter. Wavelet spectra of MetO winds show strong peaks near 14 days that match similar signals MFR-winds from Antarctica during the warming. This oscillation was generated at low atmospheric heights and propagated upward and northward. The longer duration of the winter vortex (7 months) compared to that of the summer jet in the Northern Hemisphere provide global equinox eastward winds. Analyses show that planetary waves with 10, 16 and 25 day periods penetrated to the opposite hemisphere and were detected by the CUJO systems. This important global theme is part of the Program 2008-13.

Manson A.H., C.E. Meek, M. Hagan, X. Zhang and Y. Luo, 2004. Global Distributions of Diurnal and Semi-Diurnal Tides: Observations from HRDI-UARS of the MLT Region and Comparisons with GSWM-02 (Migrating, Non-migrating Components). Ann. Geophys., 22, 1529-1548.

In the earlier paper (Manson et al., 2002, Ann. Geophys., p877) the emphasis was solely upon the longitudinal and latitudinal structures of the tidal amplitudes and phases from HRDI winds. These are very distinctive for the 24 h tide, with typically four maxima (associated with the major oceans) around the latitude circle. Here spatial complex spectral analysis was used to obtain the zonal wave numbers of the 12 and 24 h tides (migrating and nonmigrating tides, NMT). For the 24 h tide dominant NM tides s= -3,-2, 0, 2 and for the 12 h tide s= -2, 0, 4 were identified. These were related to the wave numbers (S) of the structures by [s (migrating) +-S]; topographic and planetary wave processes provide the forcing at the S wave numbers. Comparisons were made with the GSWM-02, which now has NM tides associated with tropospheric latent heat. While there are useful similarities, the model shows stronger longitudinal structures for both tides than observed; and the total tidal fields differ significantly at times and locations from those observed by HRDI or the MFR systems. There is strong community interest in longitudinal structures, which couple PW and GW processes. Manson designed and wrote it; Hagan provided early access to the model.

Manson A.H., C.E. Meek, S.D. Avery, D. Thorsen, 2003. Ionospheric and dynamical characteristics of the MLT region over Platteville (40N, 105W) and comparisons with the region over Saskatoon (52N, 107W). J. Geophys. Res., 108, D13, 4398, doi:10.1029/2002JD002835.

This is the first paper using data from the new Platteville MFR (planned in 2000 Grant Award). Its location due south of Saskatoon is very attractive. Many radars have been placed without strong regard for longitude, but these 2 MFRs allow pure latitudinal effects to be perceived. Together with London, Wakkanai and Yamagawa they form the new CUJO (Canada US Japan Opportunity) network of a 40N chain with 31-52N extensions. Annual contour plots of mean winds, tides (12, 24h), and planetary waves (2, 16day) demonstrate trends over 12° of latitude (1100 km), but many structural similarities. However, very significantly, the wave characteristics have now (Manson et al., 2004, Ann. Geophys., 347) been found to often vary more with longitude (81W-142E) than with latitude (40-52N). Spatial frequency analysis is providing wave numbers consistent with the above. Manson designed and wrote the paper.


Manson AH, Meek C, Hagan M, Koshyk J, Franke S, Fritts D, Hall C, Hocking W, Igarashi K, MacDougall J, Riggin D, Vincent R, 2002. Seasonal variations of the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides in the MLT (Mesosphere- Lower Thermosphere): multi-year MF radar observations from 2-70 degrees N, modelled tides (GSWM, CMAM). Ann. Geophysicae, 20, 661-677.

Motivation for this paper included the availability of data from SCOSTEP's STEP (1991-97) programs, its S-RAMP analysis activity (1998-2002), and the need to characterize tides and planetary waves (1.2 below) globally. Here, tidal data (1990-1997) from 8 Medium Frequency Radars (MFR) were compared with the Global Scale Wave Models (GSWM; 1995, 2000). The radars are at Christmas Island (2N), Hawaii (22N), Yamagawa (31N), Urbana (40N), London (43N), Wakkanai (45N,) Saskatoon (52N) and Tromso (70N). The GSWM2000 model has an improved gravity wave (GW) stress parameterization and background winds from UARS. For the 24h tide, observations and models have short/long wavelengths at low/high latitudes, and low latitude equinoctial maxima. However the 2000 model has much shorter wavelengths at high latitudes than observed. For the 12h tide the 2000 model has become more realistic; but transitions between solstitial states are still not strong and the amplitudes are still small from spring to fall. Our studies are the most comprehensive in height (70-100km) and global coverage, provide very wide graphics presentations, and so represent the most stringent test of the models. The community is presented with a clear indication of strengths and weaknesses of modeled tidal data. Here we considered that longitudinally varying structures associated with non-migrating tides could be an issue in the comparisons. For future observations more emphasis upon longitudinal networks was suggested. Manson devised the study and prepared the paper, Meek and Hagan had the next largest involvement.

Luo Y, Manson AH, Meek CE, Meyer CK, Burrage MD, Fritts DC, Hall CM, Hocking WK, MacDougall J, Riggin DM, Vincent RA, 2002. The 16-day planetary waves (PW): multi-MF radar observations from the arctic to equator and comparisons with the HRDI measurements and the GSWM modeling results. Ann. Geophysicae 20, 691-709.

Motivation for this study was addressed above; physically, interactions of PW, tides and Gravity Waves play crucial roles in energetics and constituent distribution e.g. McLandress, 2002, J. Atmos. Sci., 893. The same MF radars as in 1.1 above were used for this MLT (60-100 km) study, led by Luo (Grad. student); with 2 other papers, 2. below, using Saskatoon and London data, they give a comprehensive assessment of this PW. Beyond low-latitudes the 16d PW (periods 12-24d) dominates from fall to spring, with the amplitudes decreasing with height. At lower latitudes the summer waves become strong where inter-hemisphere wave ducts allow for the leakage from the other hemisphere. The 16d PW in GSWM has similar seasonal tendencies, but the discrepancies are considerable, partly due to differences in the back-ground winds. The observed wave is highly intermittent in time and space as revealed by the radars and satellite (UARS-HRDI) observations. Again these studies provided the most comprehensive study of the 16d PW in height, global coverage and season for the community, contrasting the very limited studies pre-existing. The results are encouraging assessments of longitudinal/latitudinal variations in propagation conditions, intermittency, and to improvements in modeling strategies e.g. the use of General Circulation Models (below).

Manson AH, Meek CE, Koshyk J, Franke S, Fritts DC, Riggin D, Hall CM, Hocking WK, MacDougall J Igarashi K, Vincent RA, 2002. Gravity wave activity and dynamical effects in the middle atmosphere (60-90km): observations from an MF/MLT radar network, and results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM). J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 64, 65-90.

Motivation here was to critically assess the effects of different GW parameterization schemes upon the global distribution of MLT GW and tides in a Global Circulation Model. GW have an often dominant role in the dynamics, thermal structure and the distribution of atmospheric constituents. With regard to models, usually no seasonal or latitudinal variation in the subgrid-scale GW-drag parameterization scheme is included, and varieties of parameterization schemes have been used. Although these often make conflicting assumptions e.g. Medvedev and Klaassen, 2000, JASTP, 1015, they generally produce similar zonal wind fields. In this paper we used observations from the network of MF radars (1.1, 1.2 above) and data from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM). GW and tidal wave fields were characterized and compared. There are useful similarities, with CMAM producing quite realistic tides, especially the 12h, and the 24h at low latitudes. However there are strong indications that the two GW-drag parameterization schemes (Hines; Medvedev-Klaassen) have significant and differing effects upon the MLT GW and tides, and that the latter scheme is preferred, with fewer tidal phase discontinuities. This paper has shown the value of such detailed evaluations and assists with optimization and choice of the GW scheme. Other colleagues, e.g. Miyahara, are inserting the MK scheme in their GCMs. Further collaborations with the CMAM community (T. Shepherd, PI) are ongoing, with richer diagnostics. Manson designed the study, and Koshyk provided the CMAM data.

Manson AH, Luo Y, Meek C, 2002. Global distributions of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides: observations from HRDI-UARS of the MLT region. Ann. Geophysicae, 20, 1877-1890.

Motivation here was to demonstrate the global structure of tidal amplitudes and phases; existing work on non-migrating tides and their effects had focused more on the sources and the spectral modes e.g. Forbes et al., 1997, Ann. Geophysicae, 1165. HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Interferometer-UARS) winds data were analyzed in small cells at 96 km for the tides and winds. Two solstices and one equinox were used. The 24h tide that maximizes near the 20-25N/S has significant seasonal changes with equinoctial maxima, and very strong longitudinal variability. Maxima are extraordinarily clear over the oceans. In contrast, the 12h tides that maximize near the 40-55degrees latitude have very strong seasonal changes with winter maxima, and more modest longitudinal changes. Comparisons with MLT radar observations (90 km) and the GSWM were very satisfactory. Solstitial meridional winds are from summer to winter hemispheres. These powerful graphics were well received by the community. Collaborations with Hagan have ensued, with a submitted paper comparing spectral modes in the HRDI data and new GSWM-02 (with non-migrating tides). There is much community interest in such longitudinal structures, which couple into PW and GW processes. Manson designed and wrote this.

Manson AH, Meek CE, Avery SD, Thorsen D, 2003. Ionospheric and dynamical characteristics of the MLT region over Platteville (40N, 105W) and comparisons with the region over Saskatoon (52N,107W). J.Geophys.Res., 108, No.D13, 4398, doi:10.1029/2002JD002835.

This is the first paper using data from the new Platteville MFR (planned in 2000 Grant Award). Its location due south of Saskatoon is very attractive. Many radars have been placed without strong regard for longitude, but these 2 MFRs allow pure latitudinal effects to be perceived. Together with London, Wakkanai and Yamagawa they form the new CUJO (Canada US Japan Opportunity) network of a 40N chain with 31-52N extensions. Annual contour plots of mean winds, tides (12, 24h), and planetary waves (2, 16day) demonstrate trends over 12° of latitude (1100 km), but many structural similarities. However, very significantly, the wave characteristics have now (second paper) been found to often vary more with longitude (81W-142E) than with latitude (40-52N). Spatial frequency analysis is providing wave numbers consistent with 1.4 above. This is an important theme in the Community. Manson designed the paper.


3. PUBLICATIONS (1995-2011) (Refereed journals)
· X. Xu, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, C. Jacobi, C. M. Hall, and J. R. Drummond, 2011. Verification: The impact of tropospheric and stratospheric observations on the mesospheric winds in a middle atmosphere data assimilation system, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D16108; doi:10.1029/2011JD015589.
· X. Xu, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, D. M. Riggin, C. Jacobi, and J. R. Drummond, 2012. Mesospheric wind diurnal tides within the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model Data Assimilation System, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. Vol. 74, p24-43, (ATP2694).
· X. Xu, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, C. Jacobi, C. M. Hall, and J. R. Drummond, 2011. Mesospheric wind semidiurnal tides within the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model Data Assimilation System, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D17102, doi: 10.1029/2011JD015966).
· A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, X. Xu, et al., 2011. Arctic tidal characteristics at CANDAC-PEARL (80N, 86W) and Svalbard (78N, 16E) for 2006-2009: observations and comparisons with the model CMAM-DAS. Ann Geophys., Vol. 29, 10, 1939-1954, doi:10.5194/angeo 29-1939-2011.

 · A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, X. Xu, et al., 2011. Arctic wind characteristics at CANDAC-PEARL (80N, 86W) and Svalbard (78N, 16E) for 2006-2009: observations and comparisons with the model CMAM-DAS. Ann Geophys., Vol. 29, 10, 1927-1938, doi:10.5194/angeo 29-1927-2011.
· A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, and X. Xu, 2010. Comment on “Global structure, seasonal and interannual variability of the migrating semidiurnal tide seen in the SABER/TIMED temperatures (2002-2007)” by Pancheva et al. Annales Geophysicae, 28, 665-676.
· X. Xu, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, et al., 2009c. Asymmetry in the inter-hemispheric planetary-wave link between the two hemispheres. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 71(17-18), 1899-1903, doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2009.07.011
· X. Xu, A. H. Manson, C. E. Meek, et al., 2009b. Relationship between variability of the semidiurnal tide in the Northern Hemisphere mesosphere and quasi-stationary planetary waves throughout the global middle atmosphere. Annales Geophysicae, 27, 4239-4256.
· A. H. Manson,, C.E. Meek and T. Chshyolkova, 2008. “Regional Stratospheric Warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC) Sector during Winter 2004/5: Implications for Temperatures, Winds, Chemical Constituents and the Characterization of the Polar Vortex.” Ann. Geophys.., 26, 3597-3622.
· C.M. Hall, C.E. Meek, A.H. Manson and S. Nozawa, 2008. Turbopause determination, climatology and climatic trends, using medium frequency radars at 52N and 70N. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D13, July 2, 2008.
· D. Pancheva, P. Mukhtarov, N.J. Mitchell, E. Merzlyakov, A.K. Smith, B. Andonov, W. Singer, W. Hocking, C. Meek, A. Manson, 2008. Planetary waves in coupling the stratosphere and mesosphere during the major stratospheric warming in 2003/2004. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12105, doi:10.1029/ 2007JD009011.
· K.F. Tapping, D. Boteler, P. Charbonneau, A. Crouch, A. Manson, H. Paquette, 2007. Solar Magnetic Activity and total Irradiance Since the Maunder Minimum. Solar Physics, 246, 309-326, 2007.
· C.M. Hall, A. Brekke, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek and S. Nozawa, 2007. Trends in mesospheric turbulence at 70 N. Atmos. Sci.Let., 8, 80-84.
· P. Mukhtarov, D. Pancheva, B. Andonov, N.J. Mitchell, E. Merzlyakov, W. Singer, W. Hocking, C. Meek, A. Manson, Y. Murayama, 2007. Large-scale thermo-dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere during the major stratospheric warming in 2003/2004. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 69, 2338-2354.
· T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Aso, S.K. Avery, C.M. Hall, W. Hocking, K. Igarashi, C. Jacobi, N. Makarov, N. Mitchell, Y. Murayama, W. Singer, D. Thorsen, M. Tsutsumi, 2007. Polar Vortex Evolution during Northern Hemispheric Winter 2004/05 Ann. Geophys., 25, 1279-1298.
· A.H. Manson, C. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, C. McLandress, S.K. Avery, D.C. Fritts, C.M. Hall, W.K. Hocking, K. Igarashi, J.W. MacDougall, Y. Murayama, D.C. Riggin, D. Thorsen, R.A. Vincent, 2006. Winter warmings, tides and planetary waves: comparisons between CMAM (with interactive chemistry) and MFR-MetO observations and data. Ann. Geophys., 10, 2493-2518.
· C.M. Hall, S. Nozawa, A.H. Manson, and C.E. Meek, 2006. Tidal signatures in mesospheric turbulence Ann Geophys., 24 (2), 453-465.
· T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, S.K. Avery, D. Thorsen, J.W. MacDougall, W. Hocking, Y. Murayama, and K. Igarashi, 2006. Planetary wave coupling processes in the middle atmosphere (30-90 km): a study involving MetO and MF radar data. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 353-368.
· D.M. Riggin, H-L Liu, R.S. Lieberman, R.G. Roble, J.M. Russell III, C.J. Mertens, M.G. Mlynczak, D. Pancheva, S.J., Franke, Y. Murayama, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, and R.A. Vincent, 2006. Observations of the 5-day wave in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 323-339.
· C.M. Hall, T. Aso, M. Tsutsumi, S. Nozawa, C.E. Meek, and A.H. Manson, 2006. Comparison of meteor and medium frequency radar kilometer scale MLT dynamics at 700N. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 309-316.
· T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, and C.E. Meek, 2005. Climatology of the quasi two-day wave over Saskatoon (520N, 1070W): 14 years of MF radar observations. Advances in Space Res., 35 (11), 2011-2016.
· T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, S.K. Avery, D. Thorsen, J.W. MacDougall, W. Hocking, Y. Murayama, and K. Igarashi, 2005. Planetary wave coupling in the middle atmosphere (20-90 km): a CUJO study involving TOMS, MetO and MF radar data. Ann Geophys., 23 (4): 1103-1121, SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2005-23-1103.
· C.M. Hall, T. Aso, M .Tsutsumi, S. Nozawa, A.H. Manson, and C.E. Meek, 2005. A comparison of mesosphere and lower thermosphere neutral winds as determined by meteor and medium-frequency radar at 70ºN. Radio Science­ Vol. 40, RS4001, doe: 10.1029/2004RS003102.
· S.I. Martynenko, V.T. Rozumenko, O.F. Tyrnov, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, 2005. Statistical parameters of nonisothermal lower ionospheric plasma in the electrically active mesosphere. Advances in Space Research 35, 1467-1471.
· C.M. Hall, T. Aso, M .Tsutsumi, et al., 2005. Testing the hypothesis of the influence of neutral turbulence on the deduction of ambipolar diffusivities from meteor trail expansion. Annales Geophysicae 23, 1071-1073.
· E.G. Merzlyakov, Y.I. Portnyagin, C. Jacobi, et al., 2005. On the day-to-day wind and semidiurnal tide variations at heights of the mid-latitude summer mesopause: Zonal wavenumber estimations and its consequences, case-study in 1998. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 67,535-551.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, et al., 2005. Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100 km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations. Annales Geophysicae 23, 305-323.
· Y. Portnyagin, T. Solovjova, E. Merzlyakov, J. Forbes, S. Palo, D. Ortland, W. Hocking, J. MacDougall, T. Thayaparan, A. Manson, C. Meek, et al. 2004. Mesosphere/lower thermosphere prevailing wind model. Advances in Space Research 34, 1755-1762.
· Y.I. Portnyagin, T.V. Solovjova, N.A. Makarov, et al. 2004. Monthly mean climatology of the prevailing winds and tides in the Arctic mesosphere/lower thermosphere. Annales Geophysicae 22, 3395-3410.
· C.E. Meek, A.H. Manson, S.I. Martynenko, V.T. Rozumenko, O.F. Tyrnov, 2004. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 66, 881-890.
· D.M. Riggin, R.S. Lieberman, R.A. Vincent, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, et al., 2004. The 2-day wave during the boreal summer of 1994. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D08110, doi:10.1029/2003JD004493.
· D. Pancheva, N.J. Mitchell, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, et al. 2004. Variability of the quasi-2-day wave observed in the MLT region during the PSMOS campaign of June–August 1999. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 66, 539-565.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, M. Hagan, X. Zhang and Y. Luo, 2004. Global Distributions of Diurnal and Semi-Diurnal Tides: Observations from HRDI-UARS of the MLT Region and Comparisons with GSWM-02 (Migrating, Non-migrating Components). Annales Geophysicae 22, 1529-1548.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, C.M. Hall, S. Nozawa, N.J. Mitchell, D. Pancheva, W. Singer, and P. Hoffmann, 2004. Mesopause Dynamics from the Scandinavian Triangle of Radars within the PSMOS-DATAR Project. Annales Geophysicae 22, 367-386.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Chshyolkova, S.K. Avery, D. Thorsen, J.W. MacDougall, W. Hocking, Y. Murayama, K. Igarashi, S.P. Namboothiri, and P. Kishore, 2004. Longitudinal and Latitudinal Variations in Dynamic Characteristics of the MLT (70-95km): A Study Involving the CUJO network. Annales Geophysicae 22, 347-365.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, S.K. Avery, and D. Thorsen, 2003. Ionospheric and dynamical characteristics of the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region over Platteville (40ºN, 105ºW) and comparisons with the region over Saskatoon (52ºN, 107ºW). Journal of Geophysical Research 108, (D13), 4398, doi:10.1029/2002JD002835, 2003.
· K.M. Cierpik, J.M. Forbes, S. Miyahara, Y. Miyoshi, A. Fahrutdinova, C. Jacobi, A.H. Manson, C. Meek, N.J. Mitchell and Y. Portnyagin, 2003. Longitide variability of the solar semidiurnal tide in the lower thermosphere through assimilation of ground-and space-based wind measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, No. A5, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009349.
· D. Pancheva, C. Haldoupis, C.E. Meek, A.H. Manson, and N.J. Mitchell, 2003. Evidence of a role for modulated atmospheric tides in the dependence of sporadic E layers on planetary waves. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, No. A5, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009788.
· C.M. Hall, S. Nozawa, C.E. Meek, A.H. Manson, and Y. Luo, 2003. Periodicities in energy dissipation rates in the auroral mesosphere/lower thermosphere. Annales Geophysicae 21, 787-796.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, Y. Luo, W.K. Hocking, J. MacDougall, D. Riggin, D.C. Fritts, R.A. Vincent, 2003. Modulation of gravity waves by planetary waves (2 and 16d): observations with the North American-Pacific MLT-MFR radar network. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 65, 85-104.
· S. Nozawa, S. Imaida, A. Brekke, C.M. Hall, A. Manson, C. Meek, S. Oyama, K. Dobashi, and R. Fujii, 2002. The quasi 2-day wave observed in the polar mesosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, No. D2, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002440.
· S. Nozawa, A. Brekke, A. Manson, C.M. Hall, C. Meek, K. Morise, S. Oyama, K. Dobashi, and R. Fujii, 2002. A comparison study of the auroral lower thermospheric neutral winds derived by the EISCAT UHF radar and the Tromso medium frequency radar. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, No. A8, doi: 10.1029/2000 JA007581.
· D. Pancheva, E. Merzlyakov, N.J. Mitchell, Yu. Portnyagin, A.H. Manson, Ch. Jacobi, C.E. Meek, Yi Luo, R.R. Clark, W.K. Hocking, J. MacDougall, H.G. Muller, D. Kurschner, G.O.L. Jones, R.A. Vincent, I.M. Reid, W. Singer, K. Igarashi, G.I. Fraser, A.N. Fahrutdinova, A.M. Stepanov, L.M.G. Poole, S.B. Malinga, B.L. Kashcheyev, A.N. Oleynikov, 2002. Global-scale tidal variability during the PSMOS campaign of June-August 1999: interaction with planetary waves. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64, 1865-1896.
· A. H. Manson, Y. Luo, C. Meek, 2002. Global Distributions of Diurnal and Semi-Diurnal Tides: Observations from HRDI-UARS of the MLT Region. Annales Geophysicae 20, 1877-1890.
· J. Oberheide, G.A. Lehmacher, D. Offermann, K.U. Grossmann, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, F.J. Schmidlin, W. Singer, P. Hoffmann, and R.A. Vincent, 2002. Geostrophic wind fields in the stratosphere and mesosphere from satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, No. D23, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000655.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, J. Koshyk, S. Franke, D.C. Fritts, D. Riggin, C.M. Hall, W.K. Hocking, J. MacDougall, K. Igarashi, R.A. Vincent, 2002. Gravity wave activity and dynamical effects in the middle atmosphere (60-90km): observations from an MF/MLT radar network, and results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM). Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64, 65-90.
· C.M. Hall, S. Nozawa, C.E. Meek, and A.H. Manson, 2002. On the response of fading times of upper homosphere radar echoes to solar and geomagnetic disturbances. Earth Planets Space 54, 699-705.
· A.H. Manson, C. Meek, M. Hagan, J. Koshyk, S. Franke, D. Fritts, C. Hall, W. Hocking, K. Igarashi, J. MacDougall, D. Riggin and R. Vincent, 2002. Seasonal variations of the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides in the MLT: multi-year MF radar observations from 2-70° N, modelled tides (GSWM, CMAM). Annales Geophysicae 20, 661-677.
· Y. Luo, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, C.K. Meyer, M.D Burrage, D.C. Fritts, C.M. Hall, W.K. Hocking, J. MacDougall, D.M. Riggin, and R.A. Vincent, 2002. The 16-day planetary waves: multi-MF radar observations from the arctic to equator and comparisons with the HRDI measurements and the GSWM modelling results. Annales Geophysicae 20, 691-709.
· Norbert Grieger, Evgeny M. Volodin, Gerhard Schmitz, Peter Hoffmann, Alan H. Manson, David C. Fritts, Kiyoshi Igarashi, Werner Singer, 2002. General circulation model results on migrating and nonmigrating tides in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Part I: comparison with observations. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64, 897-911.
· Nikolai M. Gavrilov, Shoichiro Fukao, Takuji Nakamura, Christoph Jacobi, Dierk Kurschner, Alan H. Manson, Chris E. Meek, 2002. Comparative study of interannual changes of the mean winds and gravity wave activity in the middle atmosphere over Japan, Central Europe and Canada. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64, 1003-1010.
· D. Pancheva, N.J. Mitchell, M.E. Hagan, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, Yi Luo, Ch. Jacobi, D. Kurschner, R.R. Clark, W.K. Hocking, J. MacDougall, G.O.L. Jones, R.A. Vincent, I.M. Reid, W. Singer, K. Igarashi, G.I. Fraser, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, Yu. Portnyagin, E. Merzlyakov, A.N. Fahrutdinova, A.M. Stepanov, L.M.G. Poole, S.B. Malinga, B.L. Kashcheyev, A.N. Oleynikov, D.M. Riggin, 2002. Global-scale tidal structure in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during the PSMOS campaign of June-August 1999 and comparisons with the global-scale wave model. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64, 1011-1035.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, J. Stegman, P.J. Espy, R.G. Roble, C.M. Hall, P. Hoffmann, Ch. Jacobi, 2002. Springtime transitions in mesopause airglow and dynamics: photometer and MF radar observations in the Scandinavian and Canadian sectors. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64, 1131-1146.
· R.R. Clark, M.D. Burrage, S.J. Franke, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, N.J. Mitchell, H.G, Muller, 2002. Observations of 7-d planetary waves with MLT radars and the UARS-HRDI instrument. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64, 1217-1228.
· Y. Luo, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Thayaparan, J. MacDougall, W.K. Hocking, 2002. The 16-day wave in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere: simultaneous observations at Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W) and London (43°N, 81°W), Canada. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64, 1287-1307.
· Y. Luo, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, K. Igarashi, Ch. Jacobi, 2001. Extra long period (20-40 day) oscillations in the mesospheric and lower thermospheric winds: observations in Canada, Europe and Japan, and considerations of possible solar influences. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 63, 835-852.
· E.G. Merzlyokov, Yu.I. Portnyagin, C. Jacobi, N.J. Mitchell, H.G. Muller, A.H. Manson, A.N. Fachrutdinova, W. Singer, and P. Hoffmann, 2001. On the longitudinal structure of the transient day-to-day variation of the semidiurnal tide in the mid-latitude lower thermosphere – I. Winter season. Annales Geophysicae, 19, 545-562.
· Ch. Jacobi, M. Lange, D. Kürschner, A.H. Manson, and C.E. Meek, 2001. A Long-Term Comparison of Saskatoon MF Radar and Collm LF D1 Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Wind Measurements. Phys. Chem. Earth (C), 26, No. 6, 419-424.
· Chris Meek and Alan Manson, 2001. MF radar spaced antenna experiment: wind variance vs. record length. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 63, 181-191.
· R.S. Lieberman, A.K. Smith, S.J. Franke, R.A. Vincent, J.R. Isler, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, G.J. Fraser, A. Fahrutdinova, T. Thayaparan, W. Hocking, J. MacDougall, T. Nakamura, and T. Tsuda, 2000. Comparison of mesospheric and lower thermospheric residual wind with High Resolution Doppler Imager, medium frequency, and meteor radar winds. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 27,023-27,035.
· G.C. Hussey, C.E. Meek, D. André, A.H. Manson, and G.J. Sofko, 2000. A comparison of Northern Hemisphere winds using SuperDARN meteor trail and MF radar wind measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 18,053-18,066.
· Y. Luo, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, C.K. Meyer, and J.M. Forbes, January 2000. The quasi 16-day oscillations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W), 1980-1996. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, No. D2, 2125-2138.
· C.M. Hall, S. Nozawa, A.H. Manson, and C.E. Meek, December 1999. Determination of turbulent energy dissipation rate directly from MF-radar determined velocity. Earth Planets Space, 52, 137-141.
· E. Yizengaw, C.M. Hall, A.H. Manson, and C.E. Meek November 1999. Nonvalidation of mesospheric horizontal wind fluctuations derived from temperature data via comparison with MF radar wind measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, No. D22, 27,565-27,572.
· C.M. Hall, U.-P Hoppe, T.A. Blix, E.V. Thrane, A.H. Manson and C.E. Meek, 1999. Seasonal variation of turbulent energy dissipation rates in the polar mesosphere: a comparison of methods. Earth Planets Space, 51, 515-524.
· Ch. Jacobi, Yu.I. Portnyagin, T.V. Solovjova, P. Hoffmann, W. Singer, A.N. Fahrutdinova, R.A. Ishmuratov, A.G. Beard, N.J. Mitchell, H.G. Muller, R. Schminder, D. Kurschner, A.H. Manson and C.E. Meek, August 1999. Climatology of the semidiurnal tide at 52-56°N from ground-based radar wind measurements 1985-1995. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 61, 975-991.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, C. Hall, W.K. Hocking, J. MacDougall, S. Franke, K. Igarashi, D. Riggin, D.C. Fritts and R.A. Vincent, July 1999. Gravity wave spectra, directions and wave interactions: Global MLT-MFR network. Earth Planets Space, 51, 543-562.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, M. Hagan, C. Hall, W. Hocking, J. MacDougall, S. Franke, D. Riggin, D. Fritts, R. Vincent, M. Burrage, 1999. Seasonal variations of the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides in the MLT: multi-year MF radar observations from 2 to 70°N, and the GSWM tidal model. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 61, 809-828.
· R.P. Kane, C.E. Meek and A.H. Manson, February 1999. Quasi-biennial and higher-period oscillations in the mean winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over Saskatoon, 52°N, 107°W. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, No. A2, 2645-2652.
· C.M. Hall, A.H. Manson and C.E. Meek, November 1998. Seasonal variation of the turbopause: One year of turbulence investigation at 69°N by the joint University of Tromso/University of Saskatchewan MF radar. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, No. D22, 28,769-28,773.
· C.M. Hall, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek 1998. Spectral characteristics of spring arctic mesosphere dynamics. Ann. Geophysicae, 16 1607-1618.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek and G.E. Hall 1998. Correlations of gravity waves and tides in the mesosphere over Saskatoon. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 60, 1089-1107.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, J. Qian and C.S. Gardner, March 1998. Spectra of gravity wave density and wind perturbations observed during Arctic Noctilucent Cloud (ANLC-93) campaign over the Canadian Prairies: Synergistic airborne Na lidar and MF radar observations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, No. D6, 6455-6465.
· C.M. Hall, C.E. Meek and A.H. Manson, 1998. Rapid Communication: Turbulent Energy Dissipation Rates from the University of Tromso/University of Saskatchewan MF Radar. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar Terrestrial Physics, 60, No. 4, 437-440.
· C.M. Hall, A.H. Manson and C.E. Meek, 1998. Measurements of the Arctic Turbopause, Annales Geophysicae. 16, 342-345.
· A. Kohsiek, M. Kiefer, C.E. Meek and A.H. Manson, 1998. Fluctuations in Tides and Geomagnetic Variations. Geophysical Research Letters, 25, No. 6, 889-892.
· R.S. Lieberman, W.A. Robinson, S.J. Franke, R.A. Vincent, J.R. Isler, D.C. Fritts, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, G.J. Fraser, A. Fahrutdinova, W. Hocking, T. Thayaparan, J. MacDougall, K. Igarashi, T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, 1998. HRDI Observations of Mean Meridional Winds at Solstice. American Meteor. Soc., 1887-1896.
· A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, J. Qian, and C.S. Gardner, 1998. Spectra of gravity wave density and wind perturbations observed during Arctic Noctilucent Cloud (ANCL-93) campaign over the Canadian Prairies: Synergistic airborne Na lidar and MF radar observations. J. Geophys. Res., 103, No. D6, 6455-6465.
· C.M. Hall, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, 1998. Measurements of the arctic turbopause. Ann. Geophysicae, 16, 342-345.
· C.M. Hall, C.E. Meek, A.H. Manson, 1998. Turbulent energy dissipation rates from the University of Tromsø University of Saskatchewan MF radar. J. of Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 60, 437-440.
· J.M. Forbes, M. Kilpatrick, D. Fritts, A.H. Manson, R.A. Vincent, 1997. Zonal mean and tidal dynamics from space: an empirical examination of aliasing and sampling issues. Ann. Geophysicae, 15, 1158-1164.
· W. Deng et al (19 authors), 1997. Coordinated global radar observations of tidal and planetary waves in the mesophere and lower thermosphere during January 20-30, 1993. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 7307-7318.
· J.M. Forbes, et al (8 authors), 1997. Quasi 2-day oscillation of the ionosphere during summer 1992. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 7301-7305.
· G.E. Hall, J.W. MacDougall, D.R. Moorcroft, and J.-P. St.-Maurice, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, 1997. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of meteor echoes. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 14,603-14,614.
· C.E. Meek, A.H. Manson, M.D. Burrage, G. Garbe, L.L. Cogger, 1997. Comparisons between Canadian prairie MF radars, FPI (green and OH lines) and UARS HRDI systems. Ann. Geophysicae, 15, 1099-1110.
· S.E. Palo, et al (23 authors), 1997. An intercomparison between the GSWM, UARS, and ground based radar observations: a case-study in January 1993. Ann. Geophysicae, 15, 1123-1141.
· T. Thayaparan, W.K. Hocking, J. MacDougall, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, 1997. Simultaneous observations of the 2-day wave at London (43° N, 81° W) and Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W) near 91 km altitude during the two years of 1993 and 1994. Ann. Geophysicae, 15, 1324-1339.
· Manson, F. Yi, G. Hall, C. Meek, 1996. Comparisons between instantaneous wind measurements made at Saskatoon (52N, 107W) using the colocated medium frequency radars and Fabry-Perot interferometer instruments: Climatologies (1988-1992) and case studies. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 29,553-29,563 .
· J. Bremer, P. Hoffmann, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, R. Ruster, W. Singer, 1996. PMSE observations at three different frequencies in northern Europe during summer 1994. Ann. Geophysicae, 14, 1317-1327.
· C.E. Meek, A.H. Manson, S.J. Franke, W. Singer, P. Hoffmann, R.R. Clark, T. Tsuda, T. Nakamura, M. Tsutsumi, M. Hagan, D.C. Fritts, J. Isler and Y.I. Portnyagin, 1996. Global study of northern hemisphere quasi 2-day wave events in the summers of 1992 and 1991. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58, 1401-1411.
· A.E. Hedin, E.L. Fleming, A.H. Manson, F.J. Schmidlin, S.K. Avery, R.R. Clark, S.J. Franke, G.J. Fraser, T. Tsuda, F. Vial and R.A. Vincent, 1996. Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58, 1421-1447.
· T. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Fukao, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, R.A. Vincent and I.M. Reid, 1996. Mesospheric gravity waves at Saskatoon (52° N), Kyoto (35° N), and Adelaide (35° S). J. Geophys. Res., 101, 7005-7012.
· Q. Zhan, A.H. Manson and C.E. Meek, 1996. The impact of gaps and spectral methods on the spectral slope of the middle atmospheric wind. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58, 1329-1336.
· M.D. Burrage, W.R. Skinner, D.A. Gell, P.B. Hays, A.R. Marshall, D.A. Ortland, A.H. Manson, S.J. Franke, D.C. Fritts, P. Hoffmann, C. McLandress, R. Niciejewski, F.J. Schmidlin, G.G. Shepherd, W. Singer, T. Tsuda and R.A. Vincent, 1996. Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 10,365-10,392.
· B. Khattatov, M. Geller, V. Yudin, P. Hays, W. Skinner, S. Franke, D. Fritts, J. Isler, A. Manson, C. Meek, R. McMurray, S. Singer. P. Hoffmann and R. Vincent, 1996. Dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere as seen by MF radars and by HRDI/UARS. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 10,393-10,404.
· W.A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G.G. Shepherd, S.P. Zhang, R.H. Wiens, W.E. Ward, C. Tai, B.H. Solheim, Y.J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C.H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M.D. Burrage, S.J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski and R.A. Vincent, 1996. Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the WIND Imaging Interferometer on UARS. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 10,405-10,430.
· P.J. Espy, R. Huppi and A. Manson, 1995. Large-scale, persistent latitude structures in the mesospheric temperature during ANLC-93. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2801-2804.
· R.H. Wiens, W.F.J. Evans, M.S. Zalcik, A.H. Manson and G.G. Shepherd, 1995. WINDII observation of a PMC breakup event during ANLC-93. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2797-2800.
· L. Zhong, L.J. Sonmor, A.H. Manson and C.E. Meek, 1995. The influence of time-dependent wind on gravity-wave propagation in the middle atmosphere. Ann. Geophysicae, 13, 375-394.
· J.M. Forbes, M.E. Hagan, S. Miyahara, F. Vial, A. Manson, C.E. Meek and Yu. I. Portnyagin, 1995. Quasi 16-d oscillation in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 9149-9163.
· G.E. Hall, C.E. Meek and A.H. Manson, 1995. Hodograph analysis of mesopause region winds observed by three MF radars in the Canadian Prairies. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 7411-7421.
· N.M. Gavrilov, A.H. Manson and C.E. Meek, 1995. Climatological monthly characteristics of middle atmosphere gravity waves (10 min - 10h) during 1979-1993 at Saskatoon. Ann. Geophysicae, 13, 285-295.


4. COMMUNICATIONS AT CONFERENCES

2001-2008 These include 21 (10 first-author) papers at International meetings:

COSPAR (US) 2002; PSMOS (Brazil) 2002; IUGG (Sapporo) 2003; COSPAR (Paris) 2004; IAGA (Toulouse) 2005; SCOSTEP STP-11 (Brazil) 2006; CAWSES (Kyoto) 2007; COSPAR (Montreal) 2008.


Travel to some meetings, and acceptance of invitations for Invited papers (e.g. AGU, COSPAR in 2002, STP-11 2006, CAWSES-Kyoto 2007), have been limited/refused due to wife’s dementia-illness. Both Grads (Luo and Chshyolkova) have attended most of above and presented my/‘group’ papers. All Conference-papers have been published in JGR/ JASTP/ Ann. Geophys.

 



Research

Infrared Aeronomy

HF-VHF Radar

Colloquium Series

PEP Planning

Atmospheric Dynamics

Atmospheric Dynamics Group

Recent Publications

MF Radar Plots

Miscellaneous

Contact Us

Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies
University of Saskatchewan
116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 Canada
Phone: +306 966-6445 Facsimile +306 966-6400
E-mail: isas.office@usask.ca

Contact Us

Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies
University of Saskatchewan
116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 Canada
Phone: +306 966-6401 Facsimile +306 966-6428
E-mail: isas.office@usask.ca